View Full Version : Discussion About The Nervous System.


mildadhd
05-30-12, 12:48 AM
.


This thread is created,

to have an evidence based scientific discussion,

all about the Nervous System(NS).


The intention of this thread,

is to practice having a discussion.

I really want the practice,

and I hope other members will participate

who also want the practice,

discussing the Nervous System (NS).


Please keep any examples of any health issues,

related to the Nervous System (NS),

none controversial and short.

So that learning how the NS works,

stays the main topic of the conversation.


The purpose is to learn.


I encourage members,

who are not so familiar with the information,

but want to learn,

participate and ask for clarification.

There is no time limit.


I also hope those people who have more experience with the topics,

will be patient.


GBYR



.

meadd823
05-30-12, 02:07 AM
The nervous system is a rather broad topic any way to be more specific?

Which parts of the nervous system are you wanting to discuss

Here is a link that hits the basics

Brain Basics (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/know_your_brain.htm)

Drewbacca
05-30-12, 03:40 AM
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/how-does-the-brain-work.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=EZ_f3Fc0ZRA

TygerSan
05-30-12, 10:10 AM
This is absolutely amazing. . .
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</object>

mildadhd
05-30-12, 11:49 AM
The nervous system is a rather broad topic any way to be more specific?

Which parts of the nervous system are you wanting to discuss

Here is a link that hits the basics

Brain Basics (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/know_your_brain.htm)


Thanks,

I hope to start with the basic/systematic/brake down,

in an easy to understand manner as possible.

I love all the links presented so far by all the members.

I hope to present general organization of the Nervous System, etc.

To help understand the great links provided.

And brake things down from there.

Hopefully things will be more clear as we get going more.

mildadhd
05-30-12, 12:01 PM
.


The whole Nervous System (NS) may be looked at in two major parts.


-The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)


-The Central Nervous System (CNS)


.

mildadhd
05-31-12, 01:15 AM
.




-The Brain and the Spinal Cord are parts of the Central Nervous System (CNS)




In the video posted by TygerSan in earlier post #4 at the time of 2min 30 sec,

there is an excellent example of what the Brain and the Spinal Cord (CNS) look like.....

http://www.addforums.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1310460&postcount=4





A good image of what the Central Nervous System consists of....

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_qNwiE9zjY3Q/THcdbrdrfDI/AAAAAAAAARQ/cDvdEfDIoic/s1600/central_nervous_system_400.jpg

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_qNwiE9zjY3Q/THcdbrdrfDI/AAAAAAAAARQ/cDvdEfDIoic/s1600/central_nervous_system_400.jpg



.

meadd823
05-31-12, 05:24 AM
I don't know I sort of like the way TygerSan presented - Not the biology as much as what the biology does - The video was extremely relative to my experience and in some ways to ADHD

The part about having to use her paralyzed hand to remember which number she already dialed goes along with the problems of working memory that is a part of being ADHD. Before the advent of cell phone and touch dial it wasn't unusual for me to forget how much of a number I had dialed in mid dial - Lot of fun on old rotary phones.

Her inability to access the past and predict future - living in the now - a typical problem with ADHD.

The expansive right hemisphere the one that had to match the squiggles on a phone to the ones on the card because those squiggle had no real meaning = welcome to dyslexia -

The holistic manner in which she describes her right hemisphere when her left is silent is my entire reading experience -of those of us who learn to do this we become what is called well compensated dyslexics - We use the right hemisphere because we can not readily access the left portion of our brain responsible for word formation - I literally experience what I read which makes verbally explaining it a challenge even though I may internally comprehend it extremely well I can pick up an innuendo in a post a mile away blind folded just don;t ask me to spell any of it without a spell checker

It explains my preference to shamanism and some of the shock of those I participate in spiritual stuff when I whip out a line of liner logic or medical knowledge

I can understand the physical aspects and of the basics I do, thanks in part to SB and some of those who have disagreed with him I even understand a bit of the chemical processes involve however without being able to connect this biological occurrences to my personal experience it means very little - Perhaps it is because I tend to be a global right brained thinker even though I can access my logical left with some effort.

Any way excellent post TygerSan, thank you :)

mildadhd
05-31-12, 11:39 AM
I don't know I sort of like the way TygerSan presented - Not the biology as much as what the biology does - The video was extremely relative to my experience and in some ways to ADHD

The part about having to use her paralyzed hand to remember which number she already dialed goes along with the problems of working memory that is a part of being ADHD. Before the advent of cell phone and touch dial it wasn't unusual for me to forget how much of a number I had dialed in mid dial - Lot of fun on old rotary phones.

Her inability to access the past and predict future - living in the now - a typical problem with ADHD.

The expansive right hemisphere the one that had to match the squiggles on a phone to the ones on the card because those squiggle had no real meaning = welcome to dyslexia -

The holistic manner in which she describes her right hemisphere when her left is silent is my entire reading experience -of those of us who learn to do this we become what is called well compensated dyslexics - We use the right hemisphere because we can not readily access the left portion of our brain responsible for word formation - I literally experience what I read which makes verbally explaining it a challenge even though I may internally comprehend it extremely well I can pick up an innuendo in a post a mile away blind folded just don;t ask me to spell any of it without a spell checker

It explains my preference to shamanism and some of the shock of those I participate in spiritual stuff when I whip out a line of liner logic or medical knowledge

I can understand the physical aspects and of the basics I do, thanks in part to SB and some of those who have disagreed with him I even understand a bit of the chemical processes involve however without being able to connect this biological occurrences to my personal experience it means very little - Perhaps it is because I tend to be a global right brained thinker even though I can access my logical left with some effort.

Any way excellent post TygerSan, thank you :)

Ya! I found the information/video TygerSan presented a great help!

I am planing to return to it and meadd823, and other post information for reference/examples many more times.

I felt some parts of the video related to ADHD in some way also.

The visual example of the Brain and Spinal Cord was the neatest visual of the brain I have ever seen.

TygerSan
05-31-12, 12:08 PM
Here's a huge resource bank with downloadable visualizations of different mammalian brains, developmental trajectories, etc.

http://www.brain-map.org/

And a really cool 3D visualization of the human body.

http://www.zygotebody.com/

mildadhd
05-31-12, 01:07 PM
Here's a huge resource bank with downloadable visualizations of different mammalian brains, developmental trajectories, etc.

http://www.brain-map.org/

And a really cool 3D visualization of the human body.

http://www.zygotebody.com/


WOW!

I never wanted a better computer before!

Seriously Amazing Stuff!

I sure need some practice,

to figure out how those things work!


The position the brain scientist,

held the real brain up in front of her,

with the attached Spinal Cord hanging down was amazing.

I would really like to know the exercises she did to get her brain working again.

And why she picked those certain exercises,

for that area of the brain,

and type of injury.


Side Note Edit: I always wanted to know if the roles of the different hemispheres "reverse"

If the person was left hand dominant?"


It was so real.


Pulling the two separate hemispheres apart,

and seeing the comparisons in some of the different sections.


To think,

how thoughts travel around,

like uncountable amounts of lighting flashing in the thunderclouds.




I am reading there is more than electricity going on?

But other things to ,

I need to understand better.

Thanks

.

TygerSan
05-31-12, 03:05 PM
This just got emailed to me. I noticed that there is a video about epigenetics around halfway down.

http://www.brainfacts.org/multimedia-library/

mildadhd
05-31-12, 03:14 PM
.


Here is the picture of the Central Nervous System (CNS).

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_qNwiE9zjY3Q/THcdbrdrfDI/AAAAAAAAARQ/cDvdEfDIoic/s1600/central_nervous_system_400.jpg

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_qNwiE9zjY3Q/THcdbrdrfDI/AAAAAAAAARQ/cDvdEfDIoic/s1600/central_nervous_system_400.jpg




Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of Nerves,

Sensory Receptors and Motor Effectors.

that are attached to the CNS in the next picture.


http://www.indiana.edu/~p1013447/images/pns_cnsc.gif

http://www.indiana.edu/~p1013447/images/pns_cnsc.gif


.

mildadhd
05-31-12, 04:07 PM
This just got emailed to me. I noticed that there is a video about epigenetics around halfway down.

http://www.brainfacts.org/multimedia-library/

Right On! TygerSan.

(I got the link below from TygerSan's link.)


Research shows early childhood is marked by critical periods — times when the brain is intensely adaptable to new sights, sounds, tastes, and touches. But what if something in early life interferes with the ability to take in sensory information? Decades of research show the brain may then undergo changes that could permanently alter future functionality. However, recent studies suggest it may be possible to extend critical periods, perhaps one day offering treatment options for people who are deprived of early sensory input or experience brain injury later in life.http://www.brainfacts.org/sensing-thinking-behaving/learning-and-memory/articles/2012/critical-periods/


This is exactly the reason I am trying to learn the terms,

and functional organization of Nervous System.

To understand and be able to express in the future,

about treatment related to the critical time of development.

In regards to ADHD.


Slowly one step at a time.

What a great help!

I will definitely be coming back to these links,

when I learn to be able express the information.

I am learning plenty!

mildadhd
05-31-12, 04:55 PM
This just got emailed to me. I noticed that there is a video about epigenetics around halfway down.

http://www.brainfacts.org/multimedia-library/


Really want to discuss this information in regards to ADHD,

along with the importance of the time of Critical Periods more in depth,

but it might be to controversial for this thread... and the OP at the moment.

Will definitely be discussing this information in the future...

Thanks Again.



Epigenetics: From Environment to Genes

Research is discovering how life experience affects genes from one generation to the next.


Is it "nature" or "nurture" that influences behavior and health outcomes? Researchers now know these factors are not independent: experience and environment ("nurture") modify genes ("nature") — a phenomenon known as epigenetics. Some of these modifications can be passed to the next generation, suggesting it may be possible for our life experiences to affect our children and grandchildren. Recent research finds epigenetics affects normal brain processes — such as development or memory — and abnormal brain processes like depression and disease. More research into this emerging field may lead to novel therapies.http://www.brainfacts.org/brain-basics/brain-development/articles/2011/epigenetics/

Drewbacca
05-31-12, 07:59 PM
This guy is fun. :)
http://youtu.be/XeJSXfXep4M
<iframe width="420" height="315" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/XeJSXfXep4M" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

mildadhd
06-01-12, 01:24 AM
.



Environmental Sensory Stimuli excite,

the peripheral sensory receptors (Sight, Smell, Hear, Taste, Touch....),

of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).









.

mildadhd
06-02-12, 03:51 AM
.



Sensory Receptors and sensory organs in the PNS respond to stimuli.


Detecting changes,

in the internal environment and the external environment,

of the body.



.

Amtram
06-02-12, 01:26 PM
And have you seen this?
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/video/quadriplegic-moves-fingers-nerve-surgery-16345011

There's a big difference between the nerves and neurons that control motor function, which is one reason that neuroplasticity is much more dramatically evident when it comes to restoring lost motor function than cognitive function. However, it wasn't that long ago that it was assumed that nerve tissue never grew back at all. This kind of discovery will have benefits in the foreseeable future for people who have injuries that take away motor functions. It's not inconceivable that at some point the science will improve to the point at which function can be at least partially restored for cognitive impairments.

I'm reminded of this in part because the video automatically proceeded to another about a girl with a cochlear implant. Which also reminded me of the experiments being done on reproducing images people have seen using the brain activity that occurs while they are viewing them. One blind man and one woman that I'm aware of have been fitted with devices that allow them some sight restoration - it's not perfect, but they can perceive light and shadow. The devices are large and somewhat disturbing to look at, but that's often how these things start!

Again, the neurons associated with sensory perception are different from the ones that perform cognitive functions. We understand them better because it's easier to observe and measure cause and effect. Movement shows an obvious cause and effect. Perception can be accurately self-reported and tested.

Cognition is an order of magnitude more complex, because of specialization of function in various areas and variations in connectivity we haven't even begun to catalogue yet. We're incredibly far from any ability to accurately measure level of function, and the impairments often make it impossible for the individuals to self-report anything at all.

But one day, by conducting research on the elements of the nervous system from simple to complex and improving our understanding of the workings of each component, we'll get closer to being able to treat or even repair damage that is considered irreversible. I don't think I'll be around to see it, but it's still an exciting prospect.

mildadhd
06-03-12, 02:45 AM
***





There are different types of excitable Nerve Cells (neurons),

Synapses,

and Glia (non excitable),

found in the Nervous System.


They connect nerve cells to nerve cells,

nerve cells in other centers,

and to other neurons in the periphery.






***

mildadhd
06-03-12, 02:46 AM
***





There are also different types of sensory receptors and sensory organs.


Stimulated sensory receptors and sensory organs,

send nerve impulses in the sensory cells,

along the sensory (afferent) nerves,

to the lower centers (spinal cord) and higher centers (brain).


Sensory Nerves that send nerve impulses to the Central Nervous System (CNS),

from the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

are called Afferent Sensory Nerves.





***

mildadhd
06-03-12, 03:19 AM
And have you seen this?
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/video/quadriplegic-moves-fingers-nerve-surgery-16345011

There's a big difference between the nerves and neurons that control motor function, which is one reason that neuroplasticity is much more dramatically evident when it comes to restoring lost motor function than cognitive function. However, it wasn't that long ago that it was assumed that nerve tissue never grew back at all. This kind of discovery will have benefits in the foreseeable future for people who have injuries that take away motor functions. It's not inconceivable that at some point the science will improve to the point at which function can be at least partially restored for cognitive impairments.

I'm reminded of this in part because the video automatically proceeded to another about a girl with a cochlear implant. Which also reminded me of the experiments being done on reproducing images people have seen using the brain activity that occurs while they are viewing them. One blind man and one woman that I'm aware of have been fitted with devices that allow them some sight restoration - it's not perfect, but they can perceive light and shadow. The devices are large and somewhat disturbing to look at, but that's often how these things start!

Again, the neurons associated with sensory perception are different from the ones that perform cognitive functions. We understand them better because it's easier to observe and measure cause and effect. Movement shows an obvious cause and effect. Perception can be accurately self-reported and tested.

Cognition is an order of magnitude more complex, because of specialization of function in various areas and variations in connectivity we haven't even begun to catalogue yet. We're incredibly far from any ability to accurately measure level of function, and the impairments often make it impossible for the individuals to self-report anything at all.

But one day, by conducting research on the elements of the nervous system from simple to complex and improving our understanding of the workings of each component, we'll get closer to being able to treat or even repair damage that is considered irreversible. I don't think I'll be around to see it, but it's still an exciting prospect.



Interesting information.

Although when I think of Neuroplasticity and ADHD.

I don't see any type of surgery involved in any ADHD treatment.

Its not the same "injury/wound".

And involves different "exercises".

(more "emotional" in nurture/nature)





"The Environment stimulates",

the PNS along (Afferent Sensory nerves),

to the CNS,

then from the CNS ,

along (Efferent Motor Nerves) to the PNS.




After I present the basic functional organization of the Nervous System in this thread.

I should be able to explain better.


Some of the areas of the cortex involved with ADHD,

seems to be highly plastic,

to the best of my understanding.

I don't want to get to of track from the OP.

But would be an interesting new thread to topic.







.

mildadhd
06-03-12, 03:48 AM
I find this research gives some good examples,

of some of differences between some sensory receptors/organs.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26868/


Summary
Most sensory receptor cells, like epidermal cells and nerve cells, derive from the epithelium forming the outer surface of the embryo. They transduce external stimuli into electrical signals, which they relay to neurons via chemical synapses. Olfactory receptor cells in the nose are themselves full-fledged neurons, sending their axons to the brain. They have a lifetime of only a month or two, and are continually replaced by new cells derived from stem cells in the olfactory epithelium. Each olfactory neuron expresses just one of the hundreds of different olfactory receptor proteins for which genes exist in the genome, and the axons from all olfactory neurons expressing the same receptor protein navigate to the same glomeruli in the olfactory bulbs of the brain.

Auditory hair cells—the receptor cells for sound—unlike olfactory receptor cells, have to last a lifetime, in mammals at least. They have no axon but make synaptic contact with nerve terminals in the auditory epithelium. They take their name from the hair-like bundle of stereocilia (giant microvilli) on their outer surface. Sound vibrations tilt the bundle, pulling mechanically gated ion channels on the stereocilia into an open configuration to excite the cell electrically.

Photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye absorb photons in rhodopsin molecules held in stacks of membrane in the photoreceptor outer segments, triggering an electrical excitation by a more indirect intracellular signaling pathway. Although the photoreceptor cells themselves are permanent and irreplaceable, the stacks of rhodopsin-rich membrane that they contain undergo continual renewal.

Drewbacca
06-19-12, 12:16 AM
http://www.intropsych.com/ch02_human_nervous_system/tofc_for_ch02_human_nervous_system.html

Nice summary