View Full Version : "Science of the Brain as a Gateway to Understanding Play"


mildadhd
09-01-13, 12:56 AM
Science of the Brain as a Gateway to Understanding Play

An Interview with Jaak Panksepp


Jaak Panksepp, known best for his work on animal emotions and coining the term affective neuroscience, investigates the primary processes of brain and mind that enable and drive emotion.

As an undergraduate, he briefly considered a career in electrical engineering but turned instead to psychology, which led to a 1969 University of Massachusetts PhD dissertation examining how electrical stimulation of brain regions affects aggressive behavior.

Since then, Panksepp has written more than three hundred articles in scientific books and journals, along with the pathbreaking 1998 study Affective Neuroscience, in which he detailed the neurology, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and functions of the emotional brain.

For Panksepp and his students, studying play in animals opens a window into what they and other thinkers have come to call the BrainMind or MindBrain.

He discovered that rats chirp (“laugh”) during their rough-and-tumble bouts and that play deprivation is a potent motivator akin to thirst or hunger.

Optimal brain development depends on healthy play experiences in early life, Panksepp contends, and he observes that over the long evolutionary haul, play has promoted social bonds and nourished social learning.

Currently, Panksepp is Baily Endowed Chair of Animal Well-Being Science in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Washington State University;

Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus of Psychobiology, Bowling Green State University; and Head, Affective Neuroscience Research, Falk Center for Molecular Therapeutics, Northwestern University.

In this wide-ranging interview, Panksepp notes how play shaped his own experience, discusses his life’s work and the context within which he conducted it, and presses for greater recognition of the value of play in psychological research.






American Journal of Play (http://www.journalofplay.org/sites/www.journalofplay.org/files/pdf-articles/2-3-interview-science-of-brain-jaak-panksepp.pdf)

mildadhd
09-01-13, 01:00 AM
ADHD and Play


ADHD: According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000), ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder), is a mental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity at higher levels than typical for a given level of development.

What causes ADHD is not completely known but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown that children with ADHD have slightly smaller brains, especially in frontal cortical areas (~5%) involved in executive functions (e.g., impulse control) and coordination of movements (Krain & Castellanos, 2006).


Children with ADHD often have difficulties in school due, at least in part, to an inability to sit still for long periods of time, to follow classroom rules, and to attend to assignments.

In addition, their behavior may be off-putting to peers, possibly resulting in social rejection. Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate, are commonly used to treat symptoms of ADHD but little is known about their long-term effect on children’s physical and mental development.


Play: Free play, in which children develop their own activities, including rough-and-tumble activities that, as the term play implies, involves physical activity such as running, jumping, play fighting, and wrestling, are increasingly recognized as essential components of a child’s development.

Both human and animal studies have provided evidence that periods of play improve social skills, impulse inhibition and attention (Panksepp, 2007; Pellis et al., 2010) and result in specific neurochemical and dendritic changes in many neurons (Bell et al., 2010; Panksepp, 2008), especially in those brain areas in which ADHD children are deficient.

Therefore, long-term provision of more opportunities for physical play may be an effective, non-medicinal therapy for reducing some of the disruptive behaviors of ADHD and facilitating brain development in children diagnosed with ADHD.


Scholarpedia (http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/ADHD_and_Play)

mildadhd
09-01-13, 01:50 AM
P32 (PDF) of the OP Link (http://www.journalofplay.org/sites/www.journalofplay.org/files/pdf-articles/2-3-interview-science-of-brain-jaak-panksepp.pdf)


If we could find the resources, and cultural support, it would be wonderful to evaluate the concept of play sanctuaries to counteract some of the psychological problems that are increasingly emerging during early childhood, such as ADHD. We ran a feasibility study with my last clinical student, Eric Scott, in the Bowling Green public school system, and it looked promising.

Most folks, especially those who hold the purse strings for research, seem to be having a difficult time understanding the potential of such sanctuaries and how they would need to be run.

I expect that when this utopian idea is finally well implemented, some visionary will even seek to extend it to the cross-cultural level—to have summer camps where young children from diverse cultures can be brought together to enjoy the blessings of free play with each other, under the watchful eyes of caring adults, of course.

Perhaps our penchant for cross-cultural conflicts might diminish further if we nourished such playful friendships. (-Panksepp)


Peripheral

SB_UK
09-01-13, 02:40 AM
Science of the Brain as a Gateway to Understanding Play

An Interview with Jaak Panksepp





American Journal of Play (http://www.journalofplay.org/sites/www.journalofplay.org/files/pdf-articles/2-3-interview-science-of-brain-jaak-panksepp.pdf)

http://www.journalofplay.org/sites/www.journalofplay.org/files/styles/issue_210px/public/covers/ajp-5-3-spring-2013-cover.jpg?itok=bZ3NgqxG

wow! That's real ... ...

SB_UK
09-01-13, 02:46 AM
I think it's essential to emphaisze that increasing the level of play which ADDers get is something that we *can* do

-- doesn't mean that it's the right thing to do (without evidence)

- but that it's not a non-starter from the point of perspective of intervention, should evidence be accumulated (as appears to have been done) unlike all of the freaky genomic strategies which produce highly artificial models which will never undergo
translation into the 'clinic'.

SB_UK
09-01-13, 03:01 AM
Wrong thread!

deleted post

mildadhd
09-01-13, 10:34 AM
Thanks SB_UK

There is things we can do!


Both human and animal studies have provided evidence that periods of play improve social skills, impulse inhibition and attention (Panksepp, 2007; Pellis et al., 2010) and result in specific neurochemical and dendritic changes in many neurons (Bell et al., 2010; Panksepp, 2008), especially in those brain areas in which ADHD children are deficient. (Quoted from post #2 (http://www.addforums.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1530850&postcount=2))



Peripheral

SB_UK
09-01-13, 02:11 PM
Thanks SB_UK

There is things we can do!

Peripheral

Play definitely is the answer.
The problem though is that it's really hard to play in this world (with a gun labelled money pointing at all of our heads).

So - personally - my wife and myself put every spare penny away for the children's housing/education needs
- I can't see how any parent (in this uncertain world) can justify spending any money on anything but the barest of necessities ie vegetables.

All of that money parents waste on non-essentials may be critically essential to permit their children to survive -
- it just wouldn't do to fritter away money on any non-essential given (in all likelihood) - the knowledge that this prophecy will come true.

What do I consider essential ?
Vegetables.

We can get by without much else.

And given a bit of land and a desiccator - we can nearly get by without needing money at all ... ... ...
- play then becomes viable.

SB_UK
09-01-13, 02:16 PM
The core part of 'play' from my perspective is that any learning of 'play' type will not drive a stress reaction.

The stress reaction's the thing that I (and I guess ADDers) have as the basis to our disorder.

Under a 'play' paradigm in which there is no winning, losing - and no repercussions for winning/losing
- the stress is off ... ... opening the door to learning.

So - once again to re-iterate that play is the answer
- though that play isn't really possible in this world.

SB_UK
09-01-13, 02:54 PM
The problem though is that it's really hard to play in this world (with a gun labelled money pointing at all of our heads).

Play is now increasingly rule bound and organized by adults and
seems increasingly lost in our evermore regulated and litigious society where
too many kids have little freedom to negotiate the social terrain on their
own terms.

Money and Law.
Tweedle dum and Tweedle dee.

Always together - law sniffing money's crotch.

SB_UK
09-01-13, 02:57 PM
My personal take on 'play' would be something like the freeform Bohm dialogue
- a form of completely objective scrutiny on any given subject
- with the goal of finding a solution.

What's the solution ?
A world where nobody need fear food/shelter availability.

What's the problem which that solution solves ?
All of 'em.

SB_UK
09-01-13, 03:42 PM
http://www.journalofplay.org/sites/www.journalofplay.org/files/styles/issue_210px/public/covers/ajp-5-3-spring-2013-cover.jpg?itok=bZ3NgqxGhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEhS9Y9HYjU
Why did summer go so quickly ?
Was it something that you said ?

SB_UK
09-01-13, 03:46 PM
Like the circles
That you find
In the windmills of your mind !


The mind is just 1 great associative structure - we fly tangents - asking questions - answering
- when the structure is complete

- the questions up and dissipate.

And you're free.

ved -anta

mildadhd
09-01-13, 07:47 PM
The concept of changing the environment, to a "Free Play" environment seems like it would be great for hypersensitive children, who often find themselves in environments, that do not suite their individual hypersensitive learning styles.




People with ADD are hypersensitive.

That is not a fault or a weakness of theirs, it is how they were born.

It is their inborn temperament.

That, primarily, is what is hereditary about ADD.

Genetic inheritance by itself cannot account for the presence of ADD features in people, but heredity can make it far more likely that these features will emerge in a given individual, depending on circumstances.

It is sensitivity, not a disorder, that is transmitted through heredity.

In most cases, ADD is caused by the impact of environment on particularly sensitive infants.




Gabor Mate M.D., "Scattered", Emotional Allergies , P 59.





Peripheral

mildadhd
09-01-13, 08:04 PM
Play: Free play, in which children develop their own activities, including rough-and-tumble activities that, as the term play implies, involves physical activity such as running, jumping, play fighting, and wrestling, are increasingly recognized as essential components of a child’s development.

Both human and animal studies have provided evidence that periods of play improve social skills, impulse inhibition and attention (Panksepp, 2007; Pellis et al., 2010) and result in specific neurochemical and dendritic changes in many neurons (Bell et al., 2010; Panksepp, 2008), especially in those brain areas in which ADHD children are deficient.

Therefore, long-term provision of more opportunities for physical play may be an effective, non-medicinal therapy for reducing some of the disruptive behaviors of ADHD and facilitating brain development in children diagnosed with ADHD. (-Panksepp)


Quote from link in Post #2 (http://www.addforums.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1530850&postcount=2).

mildadhd
09-01-13, 08:09 PM
It would be interesting to explore ADD in relation to each of 7 primary emotional systems.

ADD and PLAY

ADD and PANIC/GRIEF

ADD and CARE

ADD and LUST

ADD and SEEKING

ADD and FEAR

ADD and RAGE

mildadhd
09-01-13, 08:54 PM
Anxiety, Depression and Addiction are the 3 most common ADD commorbidities.



Anxiety and PLAY

Anxiety and PANIC/GRIEF

Anxiety and CARE

Anxiety and LUST

Anxiety and SEEKING

Anxiety and FEAR

Anxiety and RAGE



Depression and PLAY

Depression and PANIC/GRIEF

Depression and CARE

Depression and LUST

Depression and SEEKING

Depression and FEAR

Depression and RAGE


Addiction and PLAY

Addiction and PANIC/GRIEF

Addiction and CARE

Addiction and LUST

Addiction and SEEKING

Addiction and FEAR

Addiction and RAGE




Peripheral

mildadhd
09-01-13, 09:25 PM
(0:19)..If we try to line children up, for kicking soccerball.

That's a stylized play, but that's not real PLAY.

Real PLAY is something the children themselves do, and that the good stuff for the brain.. (-Prof Panksepp)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KanfLqKXYg







Peripheral

mildadhd
09-01-13, 10:20 PM
The play processes of the brain are delightfully representative of such complexities.

Play studies have brought positive psychology one of the most important inbuilt emotional complexities that can help clarify many higher-order issues, from our love of sports to the rough-and-tumble nature of power politics.

Thus, in addition to other subtle positive emotions, such as SEEKING, which are closely related to LUST and CARE, we are finding that PLAY urges are intimately related to all of these others.

(quote from OP link (http://www.journalofplay.org/sites/www.journalofplay.org/files/pdf-articles/2-3-interview-science-of-brain-jaak-panksepp.pdf))


(Note: Anything not quoted is my own layman interpretation, and I could be making a mistake)

If positive primary emotion systems, SEEKING, LUST, CARE , PLAY and are one side of a coin?

And all 7 primary emotional systems (in mammals) are RAGE, FEAR, SEEKING, LUST, CARE, GRIEF/PANIC, PLAY



(3:05) quote from video link Post #18 (http://www.addforums.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1531122&postcount=18)

..Depression actually blocks certain kinds of gene pathways, and other people have found that PLAY increases these gene pathways.

So it looks like depression and PLAY are opposite sides of a coin.. (-Panksepp)


Does Depression/Anxiety = GRIEF/PANIC ?

Are the other RAGE, FEAR, GRIEF/PANIC primary emotion systems, considered negative primary emotions, and the other side a coin?

(I'm not sure?)


It would be interesting to compare the brain order and structure of these primary emotional systems , more on a biological level.








Peripheral

SB_UK
09-02-13, 04:54 AM
Anxiety, Depression and Addiction are the 3 most common ADD commorbidities.

Anxiety leading to depression (and addiction which is the result of needing stress relief) in my case - are caused by the mind.

So - if you want me to do something which I know is pointless and tell me I won't be able to pay the bills if I don't do it - then I'm trapped between my own mind (conscience) and fears of survival.

Between the devil and the deep blue sea.

Stress is driven by both.

It's fairly obvious what the stress is of not having any money - in this world in which money is an absolute necessity.

It's perhaps not as obvious what countering one's own conscience results in; in my own personal case - I observe a tremendous lack of motivation to engage, in which every small task takes an incredible amount of energy
- and worse still - I appear not to be able to concentrate/transfer to memory learning

-- meaning that the stress caused by countering conscience (ie trying to do something that the mind thinks is not in the interests of the species) is worse than the stress of the prospect of living without money.

In fact - balancing the two of them once again - I can see that without any shadow of a doubt, the pain (stress) of enagaging in a task which my mind does not see as worthwhile results in it being next to impossible to shift it (myself) into action.

Now dexedrine (when it works) really helped with that - could motivate to anything.

Which is why I've been describing dexedrine as a means of overcoming the alarm bells (Stabile) ie stopping a stress reaction from being detected.

-*-

Now - as for the emotional systems RAGE, FEAR, SEEKING, LUST, CARE, GRIEF/PANIC, PLAY

I'm not too sure that I want any of these - and would be free from all in a fair societal infrastructure.

So - eliminating rage, fear, grief and panic in a fair societal infrastructure is fairly easy to imagine happening.
Lust dissipates on pair-bonding.
Care becomes distributed into the general population (of children, one another) if we have a fair global infrastructure.

And 'play' - well ... ... I'm happy fasting/exercising with a dog in the sun
- I don't really have a need for play - just to be left alone.

-*-

So - I guess I'm suggesting that with wisdom comes a form of transcendence of those emotional properties - at least if the mind which transcends is allowed to form a society which is logically compatible with it.

So - wisdom (the effective point of life) as being all about transcending emotion (the dualities eg happy/sad) - and attaining a state of uniform 'bliss'

--- so we're back to the idea from many years ago of overcoming duality (good/evil) and becoming fixed in a non-dual (monistic) state - which represents resonant synchrony with a fundamental substance == bliss.

SB_UK
09-02-13, 05:10 AM
And all 7 primary emotional systems (in mammals) are RAGE, FEAR, SEEKING, LUST, CARE, GRIEF/PANIC, PLAY

So - I guess I'm suggesting that the goal is to transcend dualistic emotions (happy/sad) - and to replace these duals with one even 'emotional' state.

I don't know whether 'emotion' is the right word for an emotional state if it doesn't have an opposite.

Put really simply - I'm looking at eg the duals of pleasure/pain giving way to the monistic state of bliss.

Pleasure/Pain -> Bliss.

-*-

Struggling to find anything else that needs to be said about this.

I'll try again using fewer words.

The point in life is to be happy.
That point is realised when we undergo a transition to wisdom (in mind).
When we undergo a transition to wisdom, we switch from dualistic emotions governing behaviour to a fixed single emotion ('bliss').
'Learning' is intended to take us from precursor state to state of completion - that is the actual intended point of education.

SB_UK
09-02-13, 05:23 AM
One more time -

A certain form of learning gives rise to a mind (wisdom).
Before wisdom - we're stuck in duality emotional states which determine our behaviour.
Upon wisdom - we're in a fixed 'pleasant' state of mind without negative dual state to bounce away from.

I'm pretty sure that the 'bounces' in emotional duality states (the duality emotions) - represent high blood glucose / low blood glucose

--- and that the state that we arrive in at wisdom is one in which a uniform blood glucose is desired; enter 'ketogenic' state in which, in a world without stress - blood glucose levels can be maintained at an unswerving level.

SB_UK
09-02-13, 07:00 AM
One more time -

A certain form of learning gives rise to a mind (wisdom).
Before wisdom - we're stuck in duality emotional states which determine our behaviour**.
Upon wisdom - we're in a fixed 'pleasant' state of mind without negative dual state to bounce away from.

** By this I mean that we're driven not to be in the 'negative' state towards desire to be in the 'positive' state.

That means that we've a drive (which underlies addiction non-specifically, I guess)
- which controls our actions.

And I'm attempting to describe transcending these drives by virtue of mind (wisdom) formation and pair-bond completion.

So non-specifically and across the board mind/pair-bond completion results in the state of 'bliss' being attained - a state in which the individual is happy.

What happens to the individual's mind in this state ?
It's a little like being in the fixed meditative state of mind.

If anybody's ever heard of meditation's call - to all meditators to 'empty their minds'
- well, at wisdom - that state of an empty mind becomes the default state.

Memory has a close relationship with this state of mind.
There's a natural resistance to 'memory' -

- that doesn't mean that we lose our memories (dementia)
- it means that we're pushed away from reality and fail to grasp ahold of information which 'd ordinarily permeate into memory.

It's important to see that memory isn't necessary a good thing.
Neither is mind.

As of gaining the ability (emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens) that we're finite - that is - that as of a few years old - the awareness that we're going to die
- and with that knowledge of course being granted to us courtesy of mind
- the obvious next step in thinking 'd be --->


---- whoa! daydream away into the trance state of mind at any opportunity

- I can see why I don't try to communicate in speech any more.

--->how can we suppress the knowledge that we're finite.
The simple answer to that question 'd be at the completion of mind - the individual cares not of his/her impending death - finds him/herself in a sufficiently good place.

And if my model of evolution serves me right - the state, at wisdom - since it represents resonant synchrony with fundamental substance - represents a 'form' which is ready to melt back into that fundamental substance come point of death.

So - as such - gaining wisdom (attaining the state which I'm trying to describe of bliss)
- puts us, in a very really way - in the state of mind/body/spirit which represents fundamental substance.

Despite being of material form - we're actually 'home'
- in the frame of reference of 'G.d'.

SB_UK
09-02-13, 07:10 AM
ADD and PLAY

ADD and PANIC/GRIEF

ADD and CARE

ADD and LUST

ADD and SEEKING

ADD and FEAR

ADD and RAGE


Put simply - I don't have any relationship with any of those emotions and simply want to exercise daydream fast in the sun with my dog.

Nothing more.

The disorder of ADHD comes through not exercise/daydream/fasting in the sun with my dog.

Why can't you exercise/daydream/fasting in the sun with your dog ?
Because I've gotta' earn money which I've no need for.

I don't want anything that money can buy - or at least with the loan of a house and some land
- would no longer need anything that money can buy.

Not really worried about energy etc, water, waste disposal - can handle carrying water and digging holes etc

- just want to be free of mad workplace environments where nothing of benefit to the species is performed.

If for no other reason than I can't pay attention.

It's called attention deficit disorder for a reason - we can't decide what we pay attention to - our mind does - and our mind (when educated) doesn't have an agenda of power, money, fame

- but of simple existence.

And that's all there is to it.

An entire story (of human development) which can be explained without recourse to science - and simply by talking with some reference to insightful works of art (books of religion, pictures, musical lyrics, books, films etc).

As the Shawshank Redemption teaches us - we're all in prison (unfairly) - hoping that our prison guards will be discovered for the abuse they're levelling on all those under their 'charge'
- and hoping for an ending under the sun.

And that's really all there is to it.

SB_UK
09-02-13, 07:15 AM
I think that the state of mind I'm currently in is called mindfulness.

It's a wonderful state of mind unless you want to do something.

What happens when one pushes it to do something that it doesn't want - is that it takes incredible energy to overcome its protestations - and anything it does do in this state - is performed in a state of resigned reluctance - which puts as key motivation completion (painlessly) without attending to what we're doing
- meaning that memory takes a hit - because with overwhelming desire to get it over and done with - the mind doesn't register and place into memory that which is performed in this state of mind.

someothertime
09-02-13, 07:31 AM
More unsubstantiated philosophy from someother...

PLAY:
-Inability to regulate emotional commitment ( over or under norms )
-Dynamic centred, solid self relational base impedes group participaton
-Vivid inputs, brings "more" "angles" ( intellectual usually but could be physical )

LUST:
-As above

FEAR:
-I've been told that I "disassociate" from extremely frightening situations... almost like I can shrug my shoulders at them... These are of a human threat nature...
-Yet I'm afraid the person at the shop is going to judge me...

Dualistic indeed

GRIEF and PANIC
-This one to me is numb... I don't know I'm able to truly connect with these emotions... Always seeking.... Perhaps PANIC, on a few occasions... However this I believe is a very primitive form. It seems these emotions are more difficult to comprehend / engage with. The closest thing I get to grief is a deep sorrowful compassion... in a disconnected considered kind of way...

SB_UK
09-02-13, 08:27 AM
FEAR:
-I've been told that I "disassociate" from extremely frightening situations... almost like I can shrug my shoulders at them... These are of a human threat nature...
-Yet I'm afraid the person at the shop is going to judge me...

Dualistic indeed

GRIEF and PANIC
-This one to me is numb... I don't know I'm able to truly connect with these emotions... Always seeking.... Perhaps PANIC, on a few occasions... However this I believe is a very primitive form. It seems these emotions are more difficult to comprehend / engage with. The closest thing I get to grief is a deep sorrowful compassion... in a disconnected considered kind of way...

FEAR/GRIEF/PANIC

Same here.
My observation is that I experience these when I can't force myself to do something that I don't really want to do (dexedrine helped with this - when it worked).
However - what's worse (fear/grief/panic) through memory failing from a moment to moment basis - so 'things' I'm doing right now - I'm know now - will lose that knowledge by tomorrow.
The only knowledge I retain is 'understanding' -

and so information life the machine requires a tube which is kept in the third drawer on the left on the second floor of the building - I'll have forgotten in a few days time.

So - I'd suggest that it's memory which leads to major fear/grief/panic reactions in me -- and only in the workplace.
At home you can write down all of the stuff you can't remember or simplify your life.

In the workplace - 'things' without nay understanding to retain the information together can get convoluted - and it's the convolution without sense which I can't store.

Perhaps with sufficient repetition though ?

Enough to push protocol into a place in mind where I perform without consciously (the word part of the brain) registering.

Do I want to play/seek ?
Seeking understanding whilst playing is the best way to build the mind
- achieve a mind characterized by wisdom.
But afterwards - there's no need for seeking (we've found bliss) and no need for play - because playing and arranging ideas into sense/understanding has been completed also.

All there's left for us to do is live without need to achieve.

mildadhd
09-02-13, 11:55 PM
Someothertime, and SB_UK

I really appreciate your interests in these subjects.

I have reached my limit of understanding but have lots of questions to explore, in regards to this discussion.

Don't hold to much value in my opinions in this thread, I realize I am making a mistake in my last post/questions.

I better take some time to study the information.

And I need to get Panksepp' s Affective Neuroscience Textbook.

I feel if I try to comment, I could cause more confusion than good at the moment.

I wanted to say thanks for your insight, the relationship really helps.


Peripheral

mildadhd
09-04-13, 12:18 AM
Someothertime and SB_UK and everyone else interested.


Positive emotions and Negative emotions don't seem to always mean good and bad?

Negative emotions seem like they could be my "friend".


Example,

negative emotions will help us survive if a polar bear is chasing us.

If we didn't have negative emotions, we would surely become food for the polar bear.


Are Negative emotions, fight or flight responses?

Are Positive emotions "rewards"?

(they both seem important for survival)


Fight or Flight involves the Autonomic Nervous System, (Fight of Flight is often mentioned in articles about ADD)?

Primary Emotions are also part of the Autonomic Nervous System?

Arousal is also part of the Autonomic Nervous System?

The Right prefrontal cortex is also involved with the Autonomic Nervous System?




"the brain stimulations can serve as “rewards” when positive-emotions are aroused - eg, SEEKING, LUST, CARE, and aspects of PLAY." (Panksepp)

"When negative emotions are aroused - RAGE, FEAR, GRIEF - animals escape the stimulation" (Panksepp)




The primary-process emotional-affective networks of mammalian brains


Brain research supports the existence of at least seven primary-process (basic) emotional systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, GRIEF (formerly PANIC), and PLAY - concentrated in ancient subcortical regions of all mammalian brains.

In sum, affective neuroscientific analysis of basic emotions is based on several highly replicable facts: (i) Coherent emotional-instinctual behaviors can be aroused by electrically stimulating very specific subcortical regions of the brain; (ii) Wherever one evokes emotional action patterns with ESB, there are accompanying affective experiences. Again,the gold standard for this assertion is the fact that the brain stimulations can serve as “rewards” when positive-emotions are aroused - eg, SEEKING, LUST, CARE, and aspects of PLAY. When negative emotions are aroused - RAGE, FEAR, GRIEF - animals escape the stimulation; (iii) The above behavioral and affective changes are rarely, if ever, evoked from higher prefrontal neocortical regions, suggesting that higher brain areas may not have the appropriate circuitry to generate affective experiences, although the neocortex can clearly regulate (eg, inhibit) emotional arousals and, no doubt, prompt emotional feelings by dwelling on life problems.

The emotional primes are summarized in several monographs, with another appearing soon.24 Thumbnail descriptions are provided below, with one key reference for each.


http://www.addforums.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1531600&postcount=1