View Full Version : "Epigenetic Influence of Stress and the Social Environment"


mildadhd
04-19-14, 06:14 PM
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"Epigenetic Influence of Stress and the Social Environment"


Abstract

Animal models of early-life stress and variation in social experience across the lifespan have contributed significantly to our understanding of the environmental

regulation of the developing brain.

Plasticity in neurobiological pathways regulating stress responsivity, cognition, and reproductive behavior is apparent during the prenatal period and continues

into adulthood, suggesting a lifelong sensitivity to environmental cues.

Recent evidence suggests that dynamic epigenetic changes—molecular modifications that alter gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence—

account for this plasticity.

In this review, we highlight studies of laboratory rodents that illustrate the association between the experience of prenatal stress, maternal separation,

maternal care, abusive caregiving in infancy, juvenile social housing, and adult social stress and variation in DNA methylation and histone modification.

Moreover, we discuss emerging evidence for the transgenerational impact of these experiences.

These experimental paradigms have yielded insights into the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the effects of the environment on human

development and also indicate that consideration of the sensitivity of laboratory animals to environmental cues may be an important factor in predicting

long-term health and welfare.


http://ilarjournal.oxfordjournals.org/content/53/3-4/279.long#content-block




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Epigenetic influence of social experiences across the lifespan


Abstract

The critical role of social interactions in driving phenotypic variation has long been inferred from the association between early social deprivation and adverse

neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Recent evidence has implicated molecular pathways involved in the regulation of gene expression as one possible route through which these long-term

outcomes are achieved.

These epigenetic effects, though not exclusive to social experiences, may be a mechanism through which the quality of the social environment becomes

embedded at a biological level.

Moreover, there is increasing evidence for the transgenerational impact of these early experiences mediated through changes in social and reproductive

behavior exhibited in adulthood.

In this review, recent studies which highlight the epigenetic effects of parent–offspring, peer and adult social interactions both with and across

generations will be discussed and the implications of this research for understanding the developmental origins of individual differences in brain

and behavior will be explored. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 52: 299–311, 2010.


http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dev.20436/abstract;jsessionid=D844DDA4C3526F9AE9CD107E029F0B 9D.f04t04



Keywords:
epigenetic;maternal;social;transgenerational;devel opment




i!i

daveddd
04-19-14, 07:11 PM
can therapy or types of it reverse epigenetic changes

we all know mental illness is a result of biology plus environment

can a good environment reverse it?

daveddd
04-19-14, 07:15 PM
we've seen mindfulness can create new neural pathways and change our brains drastically

is that reverse epigenetics

Dizfriz
04-19-14, 07:19 PM
Interesting study thanks for finding it but be aware that these studies are done on mice in laboratory conditions. Be careful not to take the results past that. This study does not apply to humans.

Note the last paragraph
These studies also highlight the importance of contextual variables to the health and welfare of laboratory animals and illustrate the molecular mechanisms through which the quality of social experiences can shape development and impact variation in behavior.

P, it would be helpful if, instead of just throwing out this kind of thing, you could comment on what the study means to you and what made it important enough to post.

Dizfriz

Dizfriz
04-19-14, 07:22 PM
can therapy or types of it reverse epigenetic changes

we all know mental illness is a result of biology plus environment

can a good environment reverse it?

we've seen mindfulness can create new neural pathways and change our brains drastically

is that reverse epigenetics Good questions but the study of epigenetics is far too new to make any kind of statements on this.

Give it a few years.

Dizfriz

Amtram
04-19-14, 08:24 PM
And, as has been mentioned before, epigenetics is primarily a stable, heritable part of the cell production process. If cells are not being produced, epigenetics is not happening. Postnatal brain development in humans does not involve cell production but changing connections among existing neurons.

meadd823
04-20-14, 04:30 AM
it would be helpful if, instead of just throwing out this kind of thing, you could comment on what the study means to you and what made it important enough to post.


Honestly I would like to see more of this sort of thing on here - at the very least a list of reasons why you think the information given is useful or worth my time acquiring / considering.


Why should we bother trying to understand?

What is it we will possible gain beside more factual fiction or another scientific perspective?

How is this information useful to you?

With extreme restriction on my time I tend to not really be interested in ingesting facts for the sake of ingesting facts- I would like to know what has been gained by the poster in the terms of usefulness.

Dizfriz
04-20-14, 10:17 AM
And, as has been mentioned before, epigenetics is primarily a stable, heritable part of the cell production process. If cells are not being produced, epigenetics is not happening. Postnatal brain development in humans does not involve cell production but changing connections among existing neurons.
A question I have: What drives the changing connections or the development of new neural pathways? Do you have any data on this? This is on my research list and perhaps you can save me some time.

If I had to guess it would be some form of epigenetics but I don't know and suspect that we may not have the answer on this yet.

It is a fascinating question though.


Dizfriz

Dizfriz
04-20-14, 10:29 AM
P,

Can I make a suggestion. Would it be possible for you to connect the sentences together when you type. Having them split up makes them difficult to read because I have to take the time to figure out where the sentences start and end.

I find myself not reading your quotes for this reason and I suspect that, this being an ADHD forum, many others have this problem also.

Here is an example:

The critical role of social interactions in driving phenotypic variation has long been inferred from the association between early social deprivation and adverse

neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Recent evidence has implicated molecular pathways involved in the regulation of gene expression as one possible route through which these long-term

outcomes are achieved.

These epigenetic effects, though not exclusive to social experiences, may be a mechanism through which the quality of the social environment becomes

embedded at a biological level. As opposed to The critical role of social interactions in driving phenotypic variation has long been inferred from the association between early social deprivation and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Recent evidence has implicated molecular pathways involved in the regulation of gene expression as one possible route through which these long-term outcomes are achieved.

These epigenetic effects, though not exclusive to social experiences, may be a mechanism through which the quality of the social environment becomes embedded at a biological level. I know that you sometimes put in a lot of work typing out these things and I suspect this may result in more of your posts being read.

Post as you will though. Not trying to get you to change just offering a suggestion.

Dizfriz

SB_UK
04-20-14, 12:06 PM
[1] Stress generally (from an evolutionary perspective in organisms other than man with 'mind') means absence of food.

[2] Chronic/Prolonged stress should select for individuals which have least requirement for food in order to favour survival.

[3] Inheritance is likely to be epigenetic whereby future generations are progressively selected for 'least' growth; selection needs to be rapid - we haven't time for classical genetic selection.

[4] At some point - no further epigenetic modification will be possible on chromatin structure (ie optimally open) and we might imagine emergence of a species with this 'ideal' epigenetic profile.

[5] Epigenetic modification would need to be applied at all loci which encode growth ie silence growth.

[6] We know that HDAC inhibition is anti-cancer/inflammatory disease - and so presumably histone acetylation (as the same basic thing as histone deacetylation inhibition) will suffice.

So just plain retention of histone acetylation -
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d0/Histone_acetylation_and_deacetylation.jpg

... ... resulting in an anti-proliferative 'type' which eventually (when complete) results in emergence of an anti-proliferative 'type' which we can call people with the thrifty gene, ADHD ... ... ie the underlying basis to the T2D/obesity - ADD/asthma etc etc epidemics.

--- Solution ---
1. Eat less
2. Where eating more is driven by distress (living life in a world of money) via cortisol resistance, SNS resistance and elevated PNS flow (to match elevated though 'muted' SNS response ie why +SNS and -PNS will result in improvements in asthma, hay fever (see pseudoephedrine - magic drug! and also off label ADHD) and obesity).

All connected via simple histone acetylation ie the cell shutting down its growth processes as far as it can - in order to survive in an environment which it thinks is energetically limiting - little does it know - because the mind is brand new - that it's not physical but psych stress we're feeling.

--- Actual Solution ---
Eliminate money thereby ensuring that all people have access to survival essentials as a birthright
- an end to distress (will cascade) down.

SB_UK
04-20-14, 01:31 PM
It's a bit like a tree - it branches out (grows) until it's formed (growth phase) and then just - when it reaches a certain height - stops ie 'breathes'
-- Growth --
relaxation of the genome (acquisition of histone acetylation marks)
-- Maintenance/Metabolism --
Breathe

(in the case of man - genetic/epigenetic 'sculpting' ends when an optimal aerobic respiratory structure is formed)

But, for all practical purposes, trees do stop growing in height. You can notice the similar height of the trees when you see a stand of trees of the same species.http://earthsky.org/earth/what-makes-a-tree-stop-growing

Growth

->

Grown

Growth by epigenetic modification of the genome - upon 'growth' - emergence of ADHD - and shift from material world to informational world for reward system activation.

The shift from primitive / selfish / pre-frontal cortex -> higher / social / anterior cingulate gyrus reward system.

Activation by [1] Information eg musical chills [2] Sun exposure (described recently) and [3] Social communication - described previously - just imagine musical chills in real-time communication.

-*-

Take home = evolution on the genetic/epigenetic level was simply ENTIRELY about energetics ie material world concerns.
However - with mind/ADHD we shift away from either material world OR informational world reward system
- for informational alone.

Noted in our 3 days of sun !! remarkable appetite suppression and energy when exercising ... ... still unsure about the ADDers relationship to the sun - personally though - it has become not negotiable for energy, mood, appetite regulation ... ... everything really to me personally.

Like a tree ?

SB_UK
04-20-14, 01:56 PM
Activation by [1] Information eg musical chills [2] Sun exposure (described recently) and [3] Social communication - described previously - just imagine musical chills in real-time communication.


Therefore to ADDers - distress eliminated through:

-1- Creative planet - the best art (musical chills from the cloud, incredibly HD games from the cloud) that human beings can muster
-2- Mitochondrial biogenesis - fasting, exercising in the sun (solar chills)
-3- A moral platform to an individual's mind - absolute pre-requisite for social communication - we can't permit political (pre-frontal cortex reward system motivated) snake speak where all words are used to cloud rather than triangulate meaning (social chills).

So 'to take' (selfish) reward system is replaced with 'to give' (social) reward system in ADDers.

A consequence of 'moral platform' will be a loss of money/law, elimination of corporate profit making devices eg processed food, animal farming, pesticides, GM etc etc
<- none of which are compatible with a mind which has (as it must do) the best interests of the Universe (since we're one system) in mind.

Amtram
04-20-14, 05:46 PM
A question I have: What drives the changing connections or the development of new neural pathways? Do you have any data on this? This is on my research list and perhaps you can save me some time.

If I had to guess it would be some form of epigenetics but I don't know and suspect that we may not have the answer on this yet.

It is a fascinating question though.


Dizfriz

Unless new cells are being made, it's not epigenetic. It's pretty simple. In the brain, you can destroy cells, or you can rearrange them, or connect them in different ways, but they don't reproduce or replace themselves the way other cells do. Here's a little overview of neuron reproduction that might help: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10920/

Dizfriz
04-20-14, 06:06 PM
Unless new cells are being made, it's not epigenetic. It's pretty simple. In the brain, you can destroy cells, or you can rearrange them, or connect them in different ways, but they don't reproduce or replace themselves the way other cells do. Here's a little overview of neuron reproduction that might help: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10920/
Thanks, I hadn't researched this yet and you probably saved me a good bit of time.

Dizfriz

Lunacie
04-20-14, 06:47 PM
Is it something like a computer? You can add a bigger faster processor and more memory,

but that doesn't change the original operating system (Windows09 or whatever)?

The cells that replicate for skin and uterine lining are programmed to reproduce only skin or uterine lining?

The cells that don't reproduce, like brain cells and egg cells, are limited in number and no replacements will ever be made?

Amtram
04-20-14, 08:57 PM
No, the computer parallel won't work. At some point, I'll look back through my YouTube history, had a good video showing cell reproduction. It's actually just like cell division in a fertilized egg, except that the original cell dies after splitting. If it doesn't, then it's probably cancer.