View Full Version : Primary, Secondary and Tertiary levels of control, Emotion and ADHD.

05-25-14, 02:40 PM
..Research indicates that each implementation of SR (and hence EF) across all types of SR (working memory, inhibition, planning, reasoning, problem-solving, etc.) depletes this limited resource pool temporarily such that protracted SR may greatly deplete the available pool of effort.

This results in an individual being less capable of SR in subsequent situations
or immediately succeeding time periods and thus more likely to experience problems or fail outright in their efforts at SR and resistance to immediate gratification.

Such temporary depletions may be further exacerbated by stress, alcohol or other drug use, illness, or even low levels of blood glucose.

Research also indicates what factors may serve to more rapidly replenish the resource pool such as routine physical exercise, taking 10 minute breaks periodically during SR strenuous situations, relaxing or meditating for at least 3 minutes after such SR exerting activities, visualizing the rewards or outcomes while involved in EF/SR tasks, arranging for periodic small rewards throughout the tasks or SR-demanding settings, engaging in self-affirming statements of self-efficacy prior to and during such tasks, experiencing positive emotions, and consuming glucose rich beverages during the task..

Positive (eustressful) emotions, improve self regulation.

Negative (distressful) emotions, worsen self regulation.

Homeostasis, stress, trauma, and adaptation. A neurodevelopmental view of childhood trauma.


All experiences change the brain, but not all experiences affect the brain equally.

Because the brain is developing and organizing at such an explosive rate in the first years of life, experiences during this period have more potential to influence the brain in positive and negative ways.

Traumatic events disrupt homeostasis in multiple areas of the brain that are recruited to respond to the threat.

Use-dependent internalization of elements of the traumatic experience can result in the persistence of fear-related neurophysiologic patterns affecting emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and social functioning.

A neurodevelopmental view of childhood trauma can help future clinical and research efforts to define and use child-specific and developmentally informed models to guide assessment, intervention, education, therapeutics, and policy.

In this thread I would like to focus on discussing and understanding positive and negative emotional affects and how all 3, primary (emotional affects), secondary and tertiary levels of control are involved in the development of secondary and tertiary levels of emotional self regulation.

(with an emotionally hypersensitive temperament and also possibility of expressing (or not) any inherited ADHD predispositions, that may make ADHD more likely, in mind)

The neurobiology of positive emotions.

Compared to the study of negative emotions such as fear, the neurobiology of positive emotional processes and the associated positive affect (PA) states has only recently received scientific attention.

Biological theories conceptualize PA as being related to

(i) signals indicating that bodies are returning to equilibrium among those studying homeostasis,

(ii) utility estimation among those favoring neuroeconomic views, and

(iii) approach and other instinctual behaviors among those cultivating neuroethological perspectives.

Indeed, there are probably several distinct forms of positive affect, but all are closely related to ancient sub-neocortical limbic brain regions we share with other mammals.

There is now a convergence of evidence to suggest that various regions of the limbic system, including especially ventral striatal dopamine systems are implemented in an anticipatory (appetitive) positive affective state.

Dopamine independent mechanisms utilizing opiate and GABA receptors in the ventral striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex are important in elaborating consummatory PA (i.e. sensory pleasure) states, and various neuropeptides mediate homeostatic satisfactions.