View Full Version : Eye tracking in ADHD- possible new diagnostic test for ADHD.


Kunga Dorji
08-15-14, 10:06 PM
It appears that aberrant eye tracking and its correction by methylphenidate, is likely to become a standard diagnostic test for ADHD- thus neatly demonstrating a neurological element to ADHD and a very interesting mechanism for the improvement of attention by stimulants.

This is only a small pilot group so far- but the results are very promising and clear cut.

They also fit in exceedingly well with the work and the explanatory framework for ADHD coming from the chiropractic functional neurology side.

Examination of the patients I have been seeing almost invariably demonstrates physical signs consistent with the findings of this study- and only takes a few minutes.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140813131055.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop _health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698914001187


Abstract

Oculomotor behavior and parameters are known to be affected by the allocation of attention and could potentially be used to investigate attention disorders. We explored the oculomotor markers of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that are involuntary and quantitative and that could be used to reveal the core-affected mechanisms, as well as be used for differential diagnosis. We recorded eye movements in a group of 22 ADHD-diagnosed patients with and without medication (methylphenidate) and in 22 control observers while performing the test of variables of attention (t.o.v.a.). We found that the average microsaccade and blink rates were higher in the ADHD group, especially in the time interval around stimulus onset. These rates increased monotonically over session time for both groups, but with significantly faster increments in the unmedicated ADHD group. With medication, the level and time course of the microsaccade rate were fully normalized to the control level, regardless of the time interval within trials. In contrast, the pupil diameter decreased over time within sessions and significantly increased above the control level with medication. We interpreted the suppression of microsaccades and eye blinks around the stimulus onset as reflecting a temporal anticipation mechanism for the the transient allocation of attention, and their overall rates as inversely reflecting the level of arousal. We suggest that ADHD subjects fail to maintain sufficient levels of arousal during a simple and prolonged task, which limits their ability to dynamically allocate attention while anticipating visual stimuli. This impairment normalizes with medication and its oculomotor quantification could potentially be used for differential diagnosis.

Kunga Dorji
08-15-14, 11:10 PM
Further to this:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/271549.php?sr
(Eye movement speed linked to impulsive decision making).

Though it is plausible in this case that the more rapid eye movement speed simply reflects a stress state- causing the eyes to dart around the room looking for the source of "felt" threat.

mildadhd
08-15-14, 11:44 PM
I did a simple eye tracking test, with my herbalist. Seconds

And i was blown away, by my lack of response.

I was so blown away by my result, I didn't pay attention to the specifics of the test and I can not remember exactly the name or how the test went, I will need to ask her next month.

But I could not follow her hand in the test, ( I think), it was quite clear, that I had some type of impairment.

I went blank , if I remember correctly?

This topic also strongly relates to the eye to eye contact that occurs in the heathly attunement relationship.

But I am lacking the terminology to describe, thank you so much for posting this information.

Instinctual Feeling systems exists at birth.

Systems that Think about feelings starts around the age of 2 or 3.

So it is hard to think about feelings that occurred before the age of 2 or 3.

Super duper layman

Onions, corrections appreciated.

Side note I can not wait to see my herbalist again to do and find the name of the eye tracking test.

Thanks for your help.

P

Kunga Dorji
08-16-14, 12:14 AM
I did a simple eye tracking test, with my herbalist. Seconds

And i was blown away, by my lack of response.

I was so blown away by my result, I didn't pay attention to the specifics of the test and I can not remember exactly the name or how the test went, I will need to ask her next month.

But I could not follow her hand in the test, ( I think), it was quite clear, that I had some type of impairment.

This topic also strongly relates to the eye to eye contact that occurs in the heathly attunement relationship.

But I am lacking the terminology to describe, thank you so much for posting this information.

Instinctual Feeling systems exists at birth.

Systems that Think about feelings starts around the age of 2 or 3.

So it is hard to think about feelings that occurred before the age of 2 or 3.

Super duper layman

Onions, corrections appreciated.

Side note I can not wait to see my herbalist again to do and find the name of the eye tracking test.

Thanks for your help.

P

Functions such as balance and co-ordination, (and these include eye tracking) should develop during the normal development of a healthy child.
A healthy attachment relationship provides a secure home ground in which these functions can develop- but does not guarantee it.

A healthy environment for development should include lots of play and physical movement (and I don't mean thumb movement with a Playstation- I mean running, climbing, swimming, falling, making cubbyhouses etc) and this is the activity that is particularly positively contributory towards the development of these functions.

(Dr John Ratey's new book "Go Wild" and his last book "Spark" cover these issues in some detail).

I am actually attempting to contact the author of the original paper and my comments say, in part:
[quote]
The association between upper cervical pain and balance issues is well recognised in general practice literature, and an association between balance issues and eye tracking problems should not surprise anyone- as vestibular input is critical to the spatial awareness required to direct eye movement correctly.

This model would explain the eye tracking problems as a downstream effect of disturbed afferentation to the perceptual system as a result of spinal malalignment (remembering that the bulk of proprioceptive afferentation received from the brain comes from the upper cervical facet joints and sub occipital musculature).

There are also associations between other mental illnesses and disturbed balance.
[quote]

On the subject of "attachment though- I would note that the forward head postures adopted by people in distressed emaotional states are likely to destabilise the junction between the skull and the neck- and to contribute to disturbances of proprioceptive (body position awareness) input- thus disrupting balance and eye tracking.

So we have a number of interlinked mechanisms at play here. Rather complex really.

mildadhd
08-16-14, 01:53 AM
I'm lacking the terminology, but I noticed some differnces about reaching behind me, kicking a ball with both feet, balance, etc, when I do and don't take ADHD medication.

Fascinating stuff, will need to better learn the terminology.

Thanks

P

Kunga Dorji
08-16-14, 03:35 AM
I'm lacking the terminology, but I noticed some differnces about reaching behind me, kicking a ball with both feet, balance, etc, when I do and don't take ADHD medication.

Fascinating stuff, will need to better learn the terminology.

Thanks

P

I think that noticing these things is really important.
The more I personally persist with managing the residue of my ADHD the more important it becomes to me to pay great attention to little things- such as executing movements cleanly and getting my elocution as clean as possible.

SB_UK
08-16-14, 04:14 PM
The association between upper cervical pain and balance issues is well recognised in general practice literature, and an association between balance issues and eye tracking problems should not surprise anyone- as vestibular input is critical to the spatial awareness required to direct eye movement correctly.

This model would explain the eye tracking problems as a downstream effect of disturbed afferentation to the perceptual system as a result of spinal malalignment (remembering that the bulk of proprioceptive afferentation received from the brain comes from the upper cervical facet joints and sub occipital musculature).

There are also associations between other mental illnesses and disturbed balance.

On the subject of "attachment though- I would note that the forward head postures adopted by people in distressed emaotional states are likely to destabilise the junction between the skull and the neck- and to contribute to disturbances of proprioceptive (body position awareness) input- thus disrupting balance and eye tracking.

So we have a number of interlinked mechanisms at play here. Rather complex really.Have this horrible feeling that we're all off-balance because we wear shoes.

A couple of weeks into barefoot training and ?? I can run again ?? for now.
Over 2 hours a day ... ... still waiting to see what happens.

Gradually I'm throwing everything away and am left with the follow up picture to the Garden of Eden with no snake, olives instead of an apple tree and a hemp fig leaf for the all important pants. No shoes required - Eve's a bit older and the house is a wooden barn conversion made from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and a whole lot of glass from some sand which the snake used to live in.

Kunga Dorji
08-16-14, 09:09 PM
Have this horrible feeling that we're all off-balance because we wear shoes.

A couple of weeks into barefoot training and ?? I can run again ?? for now.
Over 2 hours a day ... ... still waiting to see what happens.

Gradually I'm throwing everything away and am left with the follow up picture to the Garden of Eden with no snake, olives instead of an apple tree and a hemp fig leaf for the all important pants. No shoes required - Eve's a bit older and the house is a wooden barn conversion made from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and a whole lot of glass from some sand which the snake used to live in.

The shoes thing is a big one- hence the popularity of those ultra-thin runners with the moldings for individual toes.that simulate the experience of running barefoot- but do provide a degree of protection from sharp objects.

John Ratey deals with this at some length in "Go Wild"- in which he talks about the wealth of proprioceptive information that comes from bare feet.

It is also of note that in "The Brain That Changes Itself" the psychiatrist Norman Doidge raises a now common concern that the widespread use of shoes and walking on dead even surfaces ultimately leads to cerebellar atrophy and senile gait decay.

On that note- I am on holidays in Bali right now - (leave today :() and note the state of disrepair of the roads and footpaths.

The funny thing is that when you know that the surface is going to be irregular you factor that in and have no trouble with it. In Melbourne the local councils are forever being sued because a part of the footpath has been distorted by a tree root and a person has tripped over it.

I have only just realised since I have been typing this that I have not seen a single old person on a walking frame, walking stick or motor scooter (though I have seen 12 year olds riding motor bikes to school with their kid sister riding pillion!).

SweetAnisoptera
08-16-14, 09:51 PM
Thank you for posting this .... and I say this just before I look up the original research to see more on who/where/why -