View Full Version : Neuromodulation

09-06-14, 02:40 PM
Neuromodulation ( is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more neurotransmitters to regulate diverse populations of neurons. This is in contrast to classical synaptic transmission, in which one presynaptic neuron directly influences a single postsynaptic partner. Neuromodulators secreted by a small group of neurons diffuse through large areas of the nervous system, affecting multiple neurons. Examples of neuromodulators include dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine and others.

This is a new topic to me, help understanding neuromodulation is appreciated.

My vague layman understanding is that neuromodulation promotes development/homeostasis between lower emotional affective and higher learned and cognitive areas of the brain.

I could be wrong, and need some clarification?

Anyone understand neuromodulation ( lower affective and higher cognitive connection?), is appreciated.

Super duper layman.


09-06-14, 02:57 PM
What does it mean when Dopamine (DA+) is a key neuromodulator of the Emotional Affective SEEKING system?

See chart, Basic Emotional Systems, Key Brain Areas and Key Neuromodulators (


Basic Emotional Systems:

General Pos. Motivation SEEKING/Expectancy System

Key Brain Areas:

Nucleus Accumbens - VTA
Mesolimbic and mesocortical outputs
Lateral hypothalamus

Key Neuromodulators:

DA(+), glutamate(+)
opioids(+), neurotensin(+)
orexin(+), Many other neuropeptides

09-06-14, 10:59 PM
Types of consciousness

-More Neocortical
-More Computational
-More Digital
-Intentions to Act
-Perception to Action
-Neurotransmitter Codes (Glutamate, etc)

-More Subcortical
-Less Computational
-More Analog
-Intentions in Action
-Action to Perception
-Neuromodulator codes (Neuropeptides)

A major goal of psychotherapy is to promote
cognitive control of affective processes.

Figure 1.3. A summary of the major differences between brain systems
that mediate affective and cognitive processes in the brain. Overall, the
affective system controls global states of the brain, while cognitions
process incoming information from the external senses.

-Panksepp/Biven, "The Archaeology of Mind", Chapter: Ancestral Passions, p 8.

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