View Full Version : "The Ancestral Sources of Social Joy and Laughter"


mildadhd
11-01-14, 01:50 PM
PLAYful Dreamlike Circuits
of the Brain

The Ancestral Sources of
Social Joy and Laughter

What daring it takes
to play as ravines sweep down,
to play as a river flows.

-Boris Pasternak, "Bacchanalia," translated by Anesa Milner for Mikhail Epstein (1993)



IN HIS QUEST TO BE free, Boris Pasternak, the great Russian novelist and poet (1890-1960; winner of the Noble Prize for Literature, 1958), wrote the above lines about deep play in "Bacchanalia."

The philosopher Mikhail Epstein (1993) proceeded to reflect that "Pasternak's lines. . . convey the play of nature, that is the ideal of what culture might do--to play, not as chess players but as a river plays."

All mammalian youngsters discover within their minds, in Epstein's words, "a wild, naughty, rambunctious creature" resonant with the spontaneity of "all nature--like a mischievous child." (*1)


Ask children what they enjoy more than anything else.

Their almost invariable answer is "to play!"

Playful activities, in their many forms, bring all young mammals great joy.

And at the earliest ages, physical roughhousing--also known as rough-and-tumble play--is the most fun of all, as indicated by the abundant laughter that accompanies such activities, almost equally in boys and girls (figure 10.1). [Scott and Panksepp, 2003]

Psychologists have written a great deal about play, but they do not know how many primary-process PLAY systems exist.

It could be a single one--the maturing human mind, however, extends to the farthest reaches of our imaginations in the stratosphere of our higher mental apparatus, to the point where we can tickle each other with jokes most clever and outrageous.

We will not focus on those higher positive psychological issues of the human mental apparatus, which have been explored in various works on positive psychology (e.g., Sheldon et al., 2011).


Physical playfulness is a birthright of every young mammal and perhaps of many other animals as well.

Two recent books and two that are somewhat older provide excellent summaries of playfulness across species, much more than could be summarized in this short chapter (Aldis, 1975; Burghart, 2005; Fagen, 1981; Pellis & Pellis, 2009).

There is also a classic monograph about the play behavior of rats, still well worth reading (Groos, 1898), as well as a follow-up on human play (Groos, 1901).

It is now certain that a genetically determined PLAY network that mediates positive affect exists in mammalian brains (Burgdorf et al., 2007; Panksepp, 1998a), although many details remain to be scientifically analyzed.

So far most of the neuroscience research has been done with laboratory rats, so we cannot be sure how well these lessons translate to humans.

Indeed, we know almost nothing about primary-process rough-and-tumble play (henceforth called the PLAY system) in humans, although there is some relevant work on laughter.

But because the PLAY system is concentrated in the subcortical brain regions, just like all the other basic emotional systems, we can anticipate that many general principles, especially about the neuroanatomies, neurochemistries, and raw affects (social joy), will translate across all mammalian species.

How we translate playfulness into humor within our tertiary-process networks of our minds, will not.


It is hard to define play, but you know it when you see it.

Perhaps the best general definition has recently been suggested by Gordon Burghardt (2005), consisting of five criteria:

(1) The adaptive functions of play are not fully evident at the time play occurs;

(2) play is a spontaneous activity, done for its own sake, because it is fun (pleasurable);

(3) play is an exaggerated and incomplete form of adult activities;

(4) play exhibits many repetitive activities, done with abundant variations, unlike serious behaviors that are not as flexible; and

(5) animals must be well fed, comfortable, and healthy for play to occur, and all stressors reduce play.

Burghardt (2005, p. 82) sought to put all these qualities into a single sentence:

"Play is repeated, incompletely functional behavior differing from more serious versions structurally, contextually, or ontogenetically, and initiated voluntarily when the animal is in a relaxed or low-stress setting" [emphasis in original].


As one can see, dynamic social interactions was not included as a criterion, allowing Burghardt to include exploratory fun under the play concept, which may be largely due to animals using their SEEKING system for personal fun.

However, for us, it is the social form of play, often taking the form of "play fighting" that is the most dramatic and joyous form of play, with dedicated brain systems, that also incorporates the exploratory-SEEKING urges into its domain.

Also, for us, primary-process PLAY has to be partly defined by social neural circuits, in addition to SEEKING, that generate the dynamic quality of young animals playing with each other.

One of our original descriptions of social playfulness was when two juvenile rat pups "are placed together in a non-threatening environment, they rapidly begin to exhibit vigorous fighting:

Animals chase and pounce on each other, sometimes unilaterally, sometimes mutually with rapid role reversals.

They repeatedly poke and nip at each other, often at the nape of the neck but also on the ventral surface when one animal is pinned" (Panksepp et al., 1984, p 466).

This is the kind of play we will focus on here, for it is the one that generates the most fun, as highlighted by the abundant high-frequency laughter-type sounds--50-kHz chirps--that rats emit when spontaneously indulging in this activity or when tickled playfully by a resilient human being (Knutson, Burgdorf et al., 1998; Panksepp & Burgdorf, 2000)


These chirps are intimately linked to the dopaminergic rewards of the SEEKING system (Burgdorf et al., 2007), helping to explain the pleasure of exploratory play, which takes the form of predatory practice (such as when a kitten toys with a ball of yarn).

We now know that predatory behavior, and hence the playful chasing and pouncing form in young animals, is a developmental outgrowth of the SEEKING system (see Chapters 3 and 4).

However, as we will discuss later, this wonderful laughter-type chirping sound can now be used as a direct measure of positive affect in rats (Panksepp & Burgdorf, 2003), which has opened up doors to even understanding the euphoric delights of addictive drugs (Browning, et al., 2011; Burgdorf et al., 2001; Panksepp, Knutson et al., 2002).


Although exploratory object play can be great fun, there is nothing that quite matches the outright euphoria of fully engaged social play, a state that is quite evident to even an untutored eye.

One can observe it almost daily when looking into yard and seeing squirrels leap and chase each other on the grass.


Why does a PLAY urge exist?

It it probably enables the young to learn nonsocial physical skills like hunting, foraging, and so on.

It is also surely important for acquiring many social capacities, especially nascent aggressive, courting, sexual, and in some species, competitive and perhaps even parenting skills.

It may be an essential force for the construction of the many higher functions of our social brains.

Playful activities may help young animals learn to identify individuals with whom they can develop and cooperative relationships and to know who they should avoid.

They surely learn through play when they can dominate social interactions and when they should gracefully disengage, submit or accept defeat.

Play can also have a darker side.

When animals play, they may learn whom they can bully and who can bully them.

In short, the brain's PLAY networks may help stitch individuals into the stratified social fabric that will be the staging ground for their lives, and these networks may also prepare them to handle various unexpected events that life will surely throw their way (Spinka et al., 2001)



The PLAY urge is both robust and fragile.

It is fragile because a great number of environmental manipulations can reduce play--including all events that evoke negative emotional states such as anger, fear, pain, and separation distress; it is especially sensitive to species-typical fear stimuli such as the smell of predators for rats (Panksepp, 1998a, Fig. 1.1; Siviy et al., 2006).

For instance, if a laboratory researcher has a pet cat at home, and he is not careful to change his clothes before going to work, he will have a difficult time studying the play of rats because the odor of cats intrinsically scares rats, and fearful rats simply do not play.

Likewise, rats are scared of well-lit open spaces; they play in safe burrows, away from the attentions of predators.

In addition, hunger is a powerful inhibitor of play (Siviy & Panksepp, 1985), as are may other bodily imbalances, including of course, illness.

This is a general principle: Play only occurs when one is safe, secure and feeling good, which makes play an exceptionally sensitive measure for all things bad.

PLAY, however, is also a robust system:

If young animals are healthy and feeling good, they almost invariably play together when given the chance.



Currently, some of the more boisterous forms of rough-and-tumble play in human children tend to be discouraged by parents.

Few of them consider the developmental fact that deminished opportunities for physical play may have undesirable maturational consequences, such as poorly controlled hyperactive urges that can become so severe as to be pathologized, and are all too often given labels such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Panksepp, 2007b).

Children who exhibit excessive activity become more manageable when given medications such as amphetamines, the same drugs that dramatically reduce playfulness in rats (Panksepp, Burgdorf et al., 2002).

Conversely, in rat models of ADHD, abundant daily play can reduce the symptoms of hyperactivity (Panksepp et al., 2003).

Further study of play in young humans may allow us to help children diagnosed with ADHD by giving them more play opportunities, as opposed to the drugs that dampen the play impulse.

But before we proceed to complex socio-cultural issues, let's examine the evidence that indicates PLAY is an ancestral gift of the mammalian BrainMind.




Panksepp/Biven, "The Archaeology of Mind", Chapter: PLAYful Dreamlike Circuits of the Brain, P 351-355.




i!i i!i i!i

SB_UK
11-01-14, 03:04 PM
I can't find any mention of the word 'dream' other than in the title at the top and bottom.

What's the connection between play and dream ?

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:00 PM
PLAYful Dreamlike
Associated with creativity, dreams and Extra-sensory perception for the student the theta state is something to learn to go at will.
http://www.psychic101.com/brainwaves-beta-alpha-delta.html
Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR).


There's really nothing wrong wirth ADDers.
There's everything wrong with society.

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:16 PM
Panksepp

ADHD = robust PLAY SYSTEM

page 382
(http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=bVdxXN_vVGEC&pg=PA351&lpg=PA351&dq=PLAYful+Dreamlike+Circuits+of+the+Brain&source=bl&ots=sLOtfaHDQI&sig=o2Tg4ZaVTBeno1UYhyZ8arkB7Q8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NT1VVPSYDIyp7Ab39oDoCQ&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=PLAYful%20Dreamlike%20Circuits%20of%20the%20Brai n&f=false)Archaeology of mind.

ie explaiend - see post above.

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:19 PM
Many have problems with social compliance when their urge to play is thwarted
p 383

Exactly - we're not allowed to dream.

or from previously - let sleeping dogs lie.

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:28 PM
p 383
'long term daily play diminishes adverse side of ADHD'

ie let us daydream (= distress free state) and we're fine.

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:31 PM
p 383
'obviously it is important to attend to academic success in the classroom'

No - we the classroom typical Western education is bogus.
We can't pay attention in it - because it's nonsense.

The purpose of education is to allow the individual to tell right from wrong - not to be able to say 'where's the toilet ?' in 500 different languages.

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:32 PM
So - as long as 'play' in animal is defined as 'daydream' in man

- everything Panksepp writes derived from animal is good.

The key here - is in defining PLAY.

It's nothing to do with rough and tumble or even human beings being physically around other human beings - it's about being in a certain mental daydream state - which is a lovely distress free state which you really just don't want to leave - but are forced to depart in order to talk to the average person in dumbo world who asks you something crazy like if Jesus is Allah then why is Buddha moot ?

The answer to nearly every question human beings ask is - it really isn't important, leave me alone - I want to dream.

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:37 PM
http://vimeo.com/94604894

You asked me what's my pleasure
A movie or a measure?
I'll have a cup of tea and tell you of my dreaming
Dreaming is freeMovies are irritating.
Alcohol makes my mouth hurt.

Will the world just stop talking.
*please*

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UJbz-pp6GQ

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:41 PM
She's singin' world shut your mouth, shut your mouth
Put your head back in the clouds and shut your mouth
http://www.theworks.co.uk/images/9781405250702_Z.jpg

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:54 PM
Notice -
he's ALWAYS (https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=mr+daydream+mr.nonsense&client=firefox-a&hs=sPh&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&channel=sb&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=oEZVVPeQNoHnauTIgfgL&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=642#rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&channel=sb&tbm=isch&q=MR+DAydream) smiling

The point in life is to be happy (http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/d/dalailama132971.html)

SB_UK
11-01-14, 04:58 PM
How ?
The root of suffering is material world attachment


How to transcend material world attachment ?
Simply

Default human reward system (to beat other people)
+
mind which knows right from wrong (is wise) <- purpose of education
->
A properly human reward system which no longer hurts other people for kicks

Any idiot can beat another person.
Any team of idiot$ can beat another team of idiot$.

SB_UK
11-01-14, 05:58 PM
"Most people are able to control their 'daydreaming' state and focus on the task at hand.
"This is not the case with children with ADHD.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/8241790/ADHD-stops-children-being-able-to-switch-off-daydreaming-brain.html

Nothing that people do in the workplace is of any importance.
There's nothing wrong with being persistent daydream believers.

And it looks as though we're defining distress as the loss of the daydream/default mode network pattern of brain activity.

mildadhd
11-01-14, 06:54 PM
Hi SB_UK,

Later in the chapter approx p 374-387, there is some discussion focusing more specifically on dream and REM and PLAY and ADHD and lots of other interesting things involved.

Not sure if you can access the pages on line? But Theta rhythm is discussed more on P 405 in a chapter involving "core self and the mechanisms of affective consciousness".

Prof Damasio also discusses dreaming and daydreaming, in his book "Self Comes To Mind".

I am going review and compare the information, etc, and get back to you, tonight or tomorrow.

Thanks, your insights and interest helps me learn the material better.





P

mildadhd
11-01-14, 08:50 PM
I can't find any mention of the word 'dream' other than in the title at the top and bottom.

What's the connection between play and dream ?

SB_UK

I am going to have to come back to this question in a week or so.


P

mildadhd
11-01-14, 09:04 PM
So - as long as 'play' in animal is defined as 'daydream' in man

- everything Panksepp writes derived from animal is good.

The key here - is in defining PLAY.

It's nothing to do with rough and tumble or even human beings being physically around other human beings - it's about being in a certain mental daydream state - which is a lovely distress free state which you really just don't want to leave - but are forced to depart in order to talk to the average person in dumbo world who asks you something crazy like if Jesus is Allah then why is Buddha moot ?

The answer to nearly every question human beings ask is - it really isn't important, leave me alone - I want to dream.

SB_UK

Maybe I am misunderstanding.

Maybe you are focusing more on secondary and tertiary processes and I am focusing on primary processes?

Maybe I am wrong, but I am going to have to disagree.

90% of the adult brain develops during the implicit stage of development before the age of 4*.






P

SB_UK
11-02-14, 03:39 PM
Page 11 (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=u3bS2SUdDsUC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=amphetamines+REM+sleep&source=bl&ots=CITL45jK6t&sig=KDvxhayH-NxFjmO71QH8Ozt71qY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=sYZWVLaWLOLLsATWzYAQ&ved=0CGgQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=amphetamines%20REM%20sleep&f=false)
Amphetamines have a dramatic effect on REM sleep.

REM (http://sleepfoundation.org/how-sleep-works/what-happens-when-you-sleep)

* Brain is active and dreams occur

REM atonia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_eye_movement_sleep)
an almost complete paralysis of the body,
Relaxation ? daydreaming

-*-

Some connection between REM and ADDer daydreaming.

Low frequency EEG - low energy usage - evolutionarily selected because of the 'expense' of feeding the brain - severely compromising survival prospects ?

SB_UK
11-03-14, 07:55 AM
http://www.addforums.com/forums/showthread.php?p=1694350#post1694350

REM -> ESP -> emergence on low GMF

mildadhd
11-03-14, 06:23 PM
AN INTERLUDE: PLAY AND DREAMING


It seems likely that PLAY is instrumental in honing a wide range of social and nonsocial skills--it is an experience-expectant process that prepares animals for future challenges.

Data on how this happens are scarce .

But let's be creative.

Might PLAY be linked to the functions of dreaming?

Both play and dreaming seem to be experience-expectant functions of the brain designed to evaluate past events as sources for creative and useful future behaviors.

Perhaps play functions in ways that are complementary to dreaming.

Both may help organize information in the brain in ways that promote higher-order affective responses to future life events.

In other words, maybe both play and dreaming allow animals to test solutions to complex problems that they confront in real life.

If so, we suspect that playfulness should have a bigger role in psychotherapy that it currently does.

But let's first look at the phenomenon of sleep itself.


Neuroscientists now know that mammalian brains contain endogenous daily rhythm generators--circadian clocks that engender periods of wakefulness and sleep throughout the day.

The main circadian clock for sleep is situated in the neurons of the suprachiasmic nuclei (SCN), positioned at the base of the brain just above the optic chiasm, where the optic nerves cross over, providing both cerebral hemispheres with visual information from each eye.

These SCN neurons are especially sensitive to the chemical melatonin and are also otherwise light sensitive.

Melatonin is secreted from the pineal gland and powerfully influences the suprachiasmic nuclei:

When light fades, this promotes sleep in people and in most animals (rats are nocturnal but have higher levels of melatonin after nightfall as well, indicating that darkness drives melatonin production).



The two primary sleep states in mammals are (1) slow wave sleep (SWS, also often called non-REM sleep, or NREM), which is typically dreamless, and (2) rapid eye movement sleep (REM), during which people and animals vividly dream.

While REM sleep and dreaming do have distinct brain mechanisms, the two are usually well coordinated.

A very specific site in the ventrolateral preoptic area has been identified as an important SWS generator, although it is clear that the neocortex also has intrinsic SWS generators--sleep is partly regional in higher parts of the brain (Krueger et al., 2008).

REM sleep is generated by areas quite a bit lower in the brain stem just below the midbrain.

During REM sleep, there is a sustained muscular relaxation, which typically prevents animals from acting out their dreams.

Thus, the big antigravity muscles remain relaxed during REM, generating atonia throughout the body.

But there are also storms of various phasic components during dreaming, as reflected in a variety of small muscular twitches, the most well-studied of which are the rapid eye movements for which this "paradoxical" phase of sleep is named.

When people and animals are in REM sleep, they also move their fingers, lips, noses, toes, various muscles of the middle ear, and so on.

The point is that such peripheral twitches do not result in any coordinated whole-body behavior.

The muscular twitching during REM sleep is reflected in typical EEG readings as enormous spikes of firing, especially within the visual system.



Key brain structures that generate SWS and REM sleep, as well as generators for waking life, lie quite deep in the brain stem.

The SWS mechanisms reside higher in the brain stem, the basic waking mechanisms reside lower down in the brain-stem reticular formation, and the REM generators reside even farther down.

Thus, mammals have an unusual brain arrangement, especially when one considers that higher regions of the brain generally evolved more recently than lower ones.

The most influential mechanisms for generating SWS are situated in higher regions of the brain than the basic neural systems that allow us to be awake.

The executive mechanisms for generating REM, are situated as the lowest, and perhaps most ancient, of the three.

If we accept that structures located lower down in the central nervous system are generally more primitive than those found higher up, somehow we need to make sense of the fact that the major waking mechanisms of mammalian brains evolved more recently that the basic REM-dream generators.

We must take this apparent inversion with a grain of salt, however, because evidence is accumulating that the experiences of dreaming arise from higher brain regions than REM sleep (Solms, 2000).

In particular, evidence now suggests that dopamine-mediated SEEKING arousal may be of great importance for dream generation (Leger et al., 2010; Lena et al., 2005)


Despite these ambiguities, we still need to confront a seemingly up-side down state of affairs in our own brains:

The REM arousal networks apparently are more ancient than our brain-stem waking systems.

To make sense of this paradox, we might consider that a primitive form of emotional wakefulness may have evolved prior to the kind of wakefulness that we associate with neocortical function (with all of its sensory awareness and thought).

In other words, in ancient evolutionary history, raw primary-process consciousness might have initially existed exclusively as a kind of dreaming-type wakefulness--one that was full of emotional arousals.

This type of simple affective wakefulness may have been superseded by more cognitive frames of mind.

But the emotional arousals may still prevail during REM sleep.

As a result, the dream contents of human and animal minds may shift as their prevailing emotional arousals shift.

In order for higher cognitive brain regions to become optimally useful for learning and thought, it may be important to exercise emotion-related cognitive possibilities in the safety of dreaming sleep, thereby perhaps better helping integrate cognitive and affective issues.

During sleep, such emotional arousals remain hidden behind the motor paralysis called REM-atonia, but they are not completely eliminated, being evident in the many twitchings of the extremities.

Perhaps our emotionally rich dream-life is a residue of the progressive evolution of that kind of dual mentality; in the beginning such arousals may have been largely affective but, with brain expansion, they attained a balance between ancient affective and more modern cognitive processes.

This may facilitate complex problem solving (Levin et al., 2008).


The idea that an ancient emotional form of consciousness prevailed early in brain evolution is supported by the fact that when the brain mechanisms for atonia are damaged selectively, animals still exhibit regular periods of dreaming-type sleep.

Such animals act out their dreams because their large antigravity muscles no longer become so flaccid that they cannot move about.

These strange "oneric" periods provide a window into their, and perhaps our own, ancient emotional minds.

For instance, cats, whose inside eyelids (nictitating membranes) remain closed during these acted-out dreams (rendering them essentially blind), exhibit four major types of behavior patterns: predatory stalking, fearfulness, lashing out in apparent anger, and periodic bouts of grooming.


Our interpretation is that when a highly affective, nonreflective, dream-type consciousness first evolved, it was attended by abundant emotional activities whose free expressions were gradually inhibited and regulated in the course of evolution.

This was because such simple-minded solutions to living were no longer as adaptive as they once were.

The massive expansion of higher, more-cognitive brain regions in mammals may have required the evolution of new arousal mechanisms in the brain to help sustain waking in neocortical regions, thereby allowing higher, more cognitive forms of consciousness to emerge.

Thus, the more ancient brain arousal mechanisms controlling simple-minded emotional arousals, which may have been all that reptiles ever needed, would gradually have been suppressed and remolded as ones that controlled the arousal of REM sleep.

In this way, dreams may still be controlled primarily by ancient emotional arousal states but by ones that in more modern animals allow cognitive information to be better integrated with emotionally stressful arousals.

This could be a way to allow ancient frames of mind to still regulate higher information processing in more recently evolved animals.


In addition to its deep position in the brain stem, there is another reason to think that REM might be a primitive type of waking state that was brought under inhibition because it no longer sufficed to promote survival optimally:

REM is found in mammals but not in reptiles or fish.

Birds show only modest REM periods, for just a few seconds at a time.

It seems quite unlikely that the brain mechanisms that generate REM sleep evolved uniquely in mammals instead of emerging from preexisting ancient brain functions.

Surely at earlier stages of brain evolution, animals had simpler forms of consciousness, and with higher brain evolution, those ancient solutions had to be integrated with the more recently evolved brain functions.

It is possible that, during waking, PLAY is the brain system that promotes such integration in a way that is functionally similar to dreaming during sleep.


In sum, the projection of the evolving mammalian BrainMind toward cognitive sophistication required a major evolutionary step:

It needed the construction of new arousal systems to regulate the waking states of the thalamus and neocortex, as well as a new system to inhibit simple-minded emotionally (now expressed as REM activity).

We know that both these systems exist in mammalian brains.

The systems that arouse the cortex include biogenic amine (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) as well as acetylcholine-producing cell groups situated in the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), located in the upper regions of the pons.

In addition, various neuropeptide neurons, such as the orexin (also called hypcretin) ones concentrate in higher brain areas such as the lateral hypothalamus, are necessary for the smooth transition from slow-wave sleep into REM; without them amimals and humans exhibit narcolepsy, the sudden collapse from waking into the REM state (McCarley, 2011; Zaharna, et al., 2010).

The part of the brain that generates atonia during REM sleep is also different from those that generate the emotion-laden phasic activities of REM.

It is found directly below the locus coeruleus--the largest norepinephrine cell group of the brain, which facilitates arousal throughout the cortex and with particular force during emotional states (figure 1.1).


Why are we considering these arcane issues in the context of a PLAY chapter?

We envision a possible connection between PLAY and REM sleep:

If we are correct in thinking that a key function of REM within the mammalian brain is to promote the integration of complex affective information, PLAY systems may perform a similar function during waking life.

We suggest this possibility because, in play, many types of emotional behaviors are exhibited in the context of nonserious interactions.

Supporting this view is the fact that both REM and PLAY are heavily under control of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin.

Similar chemical mediators may be indicative of similar functions.

PLAY may consolidate the diverse behavioral components of different emotions under the sway of a feeling of social joy, allowing children to gradually develop habitual creative and positive ways of responding to their physical and social environments.

The PLAY urge may be of critical importance in the cultural and epigenetic construction of sophisticated social brains that can understand the emotional states and motives of others, opening the doors to sophisticated social cooperation and fellow feelings of camaraderie, compassion, empathy, and solidarity with and toward others.

PLAY promotes social intelligence (Goleman, 2006)


REM dreams may exert very similar functions on the diverse primary-process affective components that invade and give meaning to every life.

In other words, dreaming and play may have synergistic functions in the epigenetic creation of mental lives.

As we have noted before, it is now clear that only a few higher mental functions are endowed by our evolutionary heritage within the higher cognitive regions of our BrainMinds.

Most are learned, under strong cultural influences.

The basic emotional systems we have focused on here all participate in constructing our cognitive strengths and weaknesses as well as consolidating each of us as unique personalities.

The integration of our affective potentials with our cognitive abilities is created by the magic of each individual's unique developmental landscape.



Panksepp/Biven, "The Archaeology Of Mind", Chapter: PLAYful Dreamlike Circuits of the Brain, P 374-379.




i!i i!i i!i

SB_UK
11-04-14, 07:29 AM
I was dreamin' when I wrote this
Forgive me if it goes astray

The ADDer never remains on topic (as such) -
because there's no such thing as on / off topic - just 1 system representing understanding.

The ADDer is predisposed to 'dream state' whilst awake - equates to PLAY state - equates to distress-free state
- normal life in our current world (being asked questions which we can't and nobody can answer) -
is a bit like 'sleep torture' or waking us up chronically as we're about to fall asleep (enter dream state)

-- so failure to settle into daydream state (distress free) -> leads to chronic distress -> leads to all of the many diseases we associate with distress (diseases of Western living).

Daydream state - a state of mind - is one which we're predisposed to and which standard man acquires with wisdom.

So what's wrong with us ?
Nothing.

Just distress from not being able to enter 'a [virtual] beautiful place in the country' by virtue of idiot world insisting that we need to do pointless things ie things which are immoral from 5 years old till death
- at work, at home

- everywhere apart from the freedom we get when we sleep.

When nobody gets to tell us to do thoroughly pointless things.

Ahhh .. ... but how'll we ever get anything useful done if you're in 'reflective' state
- thing is, is that we'll only EVER get things done in introspective state

- as it waits until it has an optimal approach before attempting to introduce it.

What's the optimal approach ?
Simply freedom from compulsion to all people by eliminating the need for money to survive.

It's the single silver bullet which eliminates all human suffering.

Thereafter -> voluntary association -> equality -> voluntary engagement

ie PLAY at level of physical and mental and spiritual levels.

PLAY PHYSICAL - eg in the zone aerobic running
PLAY MENTAL - creative explorations in mind
PLAY SPIRITUAL - existence with an emptied (ie not fielding logical inconsistencies ie individual understanding personal context) mind

The commonality here is that PLAY appears to require a certain state of mind - perhaps the theta state of REM sleep ... ...

So - 'lost in music' - a state of mind - to lose oneself.

To lose oneself - occurs by virtue of eliminating self through understanding reality.

Elimination of self - to see the Universe as a connected whole - which all people suspect it really has to be - just that it blows the mind and especially the mathematical modellers - who simplify real world systems
- which cannot be simplified.

Just 1 system - the Universe.

SB_UK
11-04-14, 07:52 AM
This is an interesting one -
http://www.sleepdex.org/cytokines.htm

IL-1/TNF promote sleep
IL-1/TNF - profoundly pro-inflammatory

ADDer daydream state not accessed.
IL-1/TNF expression to send us back to sleep -> peripheral inflammation.

It marries up the idea of not being allowed to daydream with inflammation
- which we've previously just connected via chronic cortisol production;
cortisol resistance;
loss of regulation in the immune system

- anyway - same solution in both cases.

PLAY = DREAM (to mind)
thing about using evolutionary models of mind is that we're the only one with a mind - and; you have to be here (with a mind) to know how much one wants to simply daydream in the sun ... ... and if something's just that powerfully motivational- it must be ticking all of the 'play' boxes where play = distress-free ie optimal physio/psych wellbeing.

-*-

So - a particular state of mind which we're in in play - and the goal is to get back (permanently) to that state of mind - so the state exists in evolutionary models - it's just that the mind doesn't
- so use of animal models ie organisms that aren't driven mad by the frustration of existence is maybe valid.

SB_UK
11-04-14, 08:01 AM
So - the conclusion of all of that - is that we're not permitting people to engage in personally fulfilling daydreams - and that the net consequence of this is distress.<br><br>Once again - as we discover daydream, running barefoot, eating very little and when we do only vegetables, sun exposure <br>-&lt;- that the OPTIMAL lifestyle can be had without ANY money.<br><br>- and that money simply gets in the way ie buys you things which keep you away from that optimal life-style.<br><br>net conclusion - there's nothing wrong with ADDers or people -we've simply grasped materialism and it has destroyed us.<br><br>Nothing that carries a price is needed for optimal human body/mind/spirit functioning.<br>

SB_UK
11-04-14, 08:28 AM
-*-

So - a particular state of mind which we're in in play - and the goal is to get back (permanently) to that state of mind - so the state exists in evolutionary models - it's just that the mind doesn't
- so use of animal models ie organisms that aren't driven mad by the frustration of existence is maybe valid.

that a primitive form of emotional wakefulness may have evolved prior to the kind of wakefulness that we associate with neocortical function (with all of its sensory awareness and thought).

In other words, in ancient evolutionary history, raw primary-process consciousness might have initially existed exclusively as a kind of dreaming-type wakefulness--one that was full of emotional arousals.

Perfect.

That's the promised land.

A non-dual state of emotional balance.

It's a nice state.

SB_UK
11-04-14, 08:33 AM
I've noticed that when my dog is in REM sleep (dogs move, make noise and their eyes move) - that she can trigger muscular twitching in my eyes - very similar to what we experience in REM sleep.

So - dog asleep - human awake, human awake - dog asleep
- it sounds like an evolutionary mechanism of survival ie one one watch whilst the other was asleep.

Resonating with the EEG of a sleeping dog !!

The phrase is 'let sleeping dogs lie' ... ...

SB_UK
11-04-14, 08:38 AM
It is possible that, during waking, PLAY is the brain system that promotes such integration in a way that is functionally similar to dreaming during sleep.

Exactly.


PLAY = DREAM (to mind)

SB_UK
11-04-14, 09:05 AM
We envision a possible connection between PLAY and REM sleep:

If we are correct in thinking that a key function of REM within the mammalian brain is to promote the integration of complex affective information, PLAY systems may perform a similar function during waking life.PLAY (daydream) assists the individual to assemble their own mind.

This is what holds our attention.

Not being told (in workplace / classroom) what we should be training our mind towards.

The mind has a role in taking us back to:
hat a primitive form of emotional wakefulness may have evolved prior to the kind of wakefulness that we associate with neocortical function (with all of its sensory awareness and thought).

In other words, in ancient evolutionary history, raw primary-process consciousness might have initially existed exclusively as a kind of dreaming-type wakefulness--one that was full of emotional arousals.So - dream (night) and dream (day) as responsible for building (creatively) virtual models of understanding -

- attention obviously should be in creating this model of mind (towards completion of mind/wisdom)

- but attention hijacked by school/work which under the guidance of materialism dictates a variety of behavious which we must attend to - which're of no importance to man ie how to climb a human hierarchy, beat a human being, build things which pollute the planet, beat people to acquiring money etc etc

- ie education has been sequestered by a series of ideals which're WRONG
- and we can't pay attention because we don't get any reward from (in effect) any form of human competition.

The daydream is a chance to take stock and put things in order (assemble mind) ... ... but the end goal (completion of mind) -> is to be happy ie access that original state of emotional balance which allowed us permission just to be of even keel - ie happy in pure existence.

So Peripheral's right - it's that original state which we're striving to access via ADD daydreaming or creatively building a globally consistent model of midn to wisdom through accumulating and putting data into order.

SB_UK
11-04-14, 10:16 AM
Play - rough and tumble - educate motor neural systems ? ie balance - known to involve dopamine eg in Parkinson's
Play - creativity/mind - educate mind ? known to involve dopamine
Play - art/music - educate sensory (sense quality) systems ? eg musical chills known to drive dopamine

So - can we 'broadly' speaking describe PLAY as some form of education - a form of education or re-arrangement of neurones which then go onto perform some role.

So - not usually thought of education at the level of motor or sensory - but the underlying nature to PLAY as neural assembly to what we might call quality.

A neural complexity of arrangement driving rewarded by dopamine hit ?

SB_UK
11-04-14, 10:22 AM
That idea seems to attract attention.

The basic idea of PLAY as a dopamine-hit reward based around some neural system increasing in complexity resulting in a more informationally rich model or a more informationally rich immersion of the individual within reality.

Why bother ?

Evolutionarily weaving a tapestry - the tapestry evolves to informational complexity - we need to evolve to experience informational complexity for there to be informational complexity ie consciousness requires that there's a lock and key ie a level of informational complexity and the capacity to recognize that informational complexity in order for there to be complexity at all ie evolution of consciousness requires recognition of complexity.

SB_UK
11-04-14, 10:57 AM
The basic idea of PLAY as a dopamine-hit reward based around some neural system increasing in complexity resulting in a more informationally rich model or a more informationally rich immersion of the individual within reality.


So we can take this idea back to Markham's Intense world theory.

And back to the idea on site of

carb/protein (insulin/IGF-1) based growth in body
ketone body (valproic acid) based neural rearrangement

- valproic acid resulting in highly connected neurones - an overloaded child - autism.

-*-

ADD sensitivity can also be brought back to the idea of a more interconnected neural system (same idea as above - more information availed through increased interconnection).

Increased interconnection -> smaller brain size (seen in ADHD)

-*-

Summarising

PLAY relates to a pattern of behaviour (different at each stage of the life-cycle) which puts in place ie which rearranges our existing neural mass to complexity (increased inter-connectivity).
As it does, our life-experience enriches.

Through PLAY to Quality of life.

Education in its broadest sense (through play) -> to increased quality of life through modifying the neural networks which transduce reality - motor, sensory, understanding into an inner context.

SB_UK
11-04-14, 12:13 PM
short chain fatty acid valproic acid (VPA) (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pri/2013/712758/)

connects to

Short-chain fatty acid fermentation products of the gut microbiome (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3747729/)

via soluble fibre.

Vegetables -> internal quality (neural rearrangement) food ?

... ... but ! the paper suggests SCFA basis to autism.

-*-

--- General idea ---

carb [body development] -> ketone [neural development / re-arrangement]

Not vegetables - but gestational diabetes -> ketones

What is gestational diabetes ?
Stress (distress) and the wrong diet ??

Management (http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/gestational-diabetes/Pages/Treatment.aspx)
For many women, changing diet and exercising more will be enough to control your gestational diabetes. Some women will need medication. (http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/gestational-diabetes/Pages/Treatment.aspx)

-*-

--- Summary ---

Not valproic acid underlying dramatic rise in -> ASD spectrum
Not gut biome soluble fibre fermentation to SCFA -> ASD spectrum

But

persistent variation in blood glucose levels -> ketones through gestational diabetes -> ASD spectrum

Variation in blood glucose levels -> the wrong foods, lack of exercise and distress.

SB_UK
11-04-14, 03:36 PM
Once again - as we discover daydream, running barefoot, eating very little and when we do only vegetables, sun exposure - that the OPTIMAL lifestyle can be had without ANY money and that money simply gets in the way ie buys you things which keep you away from that optimal life-style.

net conclusion - there's nothing wrong with ADDers or people -we've simply grasped materialism and it has destroyed us. Nothing that carries a price is needed for optimal human body/mind/spirit functioning.

http://www.addforums.com/forums/data:image/jpeg;base64,/9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQAAAQABAAD/2wCEAAkGBxQSERUUEhQVFhUXFBQVGBUYGBgXGBgVFRgXGBccFR UYHCggGBolHBgXIjEhJykrLi4uFx8zODMsNygtLisBCgoKDg0O GxAQGywkHiQsLC8sMCwsNCwsLywsLCwsLCwsLCw3LCwsLCwsLC ssLCwsLCwsLCwsLCwsLCwsLCwsLP/AABEIARgAtAMBIgACEQEDEQH/xAAcAAABBQEBAQAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAwQFBgcBAgj/xABLEAABAwEEAgwLBgUDAwUAAAABAAIRAwQSITEFQQYHEyJRU2 FxgZGSsRQyNDVScnOhssLRFiMzQsHiYnSEs/AkguEVw+NDRGNkov/EABsBAQADAQEBAQAAAAAAAAAAAAABAgMEBQYH/8QAOBEAAgECAwMJBwQBBQAAAAAAAAECAxESITEEUaEFExUiMkF SYYEzNHFykdHwQrHB4SMUJENE8f/aAAwDAQACEQMRAD8AsqEIXxpyghCEJBCEIQCEIQAhCEAIQhACE IQkEIQpIBCEKACEIQAhCEAIQhACgdmGyVthoh12895hjZgYYkk 8A+inlmG3Id/ZvUq97V1bHSjUrKMtC0VdljFutzbG21F1N7roqOoBkDczjDXA3 r0Y6092GaddbaVSqRdAruY1usMDKZEkZmXHHlUnotoNnpA5Gkw HmLQFX9rizblRtFP0LbWb0NbTA7lpNwlTnkrp5fAl2zJrZFpll joOrPExAa30nHIKD0RpC22qym0tfSYTfNOlud4EMnx3F0yY1Jl tvn/S0vbj4Hqb2DebqHsz3lXjCMNnVS12337ibWVxLYTsrFuY4Obcq sguAyIORbPdqVlWR7UZ/wBZUH/wu+Jq1xZbdSjTrNR0ImrMZ6WfVbTc6kWBzQ50OaXAgCYEOEHlx VU2E7KrRbqjw7cWCmGOIDHEuaSQQDfhpwzg5q7PZeBHCCOvBZN tTVCy21GHM0XCOVjmrTZoRlQqNpXWgjoyy7N9k9psDmXRRe2pf IljgWhpEAkPxMHOBkrNoO0VKlFlSo5hvta8XGloAcAYMuMnHPD mVP24KX3FF3BVI6C0/RWLYLXv6Ps54Kd3sOcz5Uqwh/pYzSV72Ya6onpi12ynWpMpmg5tao5gvMeCwAF0mH77AHgU1dqb nF5m6elcNyZ9C9OX8X0TC3Om2WZvAyvU6gxnzqWXPUksMcl9PM hmf2fZhanW/wADigPvHU90uP8Aygmbu6cmUq/UQbovEF0CSBAJ1wJMDpWSaP8AP/8AUVfhctdW+3QjDBhVrq5M1axStm2ye02FzLu4vbUvEAscC0Nj Mh+OeeCsOgLRWq0qdWq6mW1KTHhrWOaWl4DsXF5nPgVI2487Pz VPlV42L+RWb+Xo/wBtqtWhFbNCSSuw11Ux/aGvLTuZa12ouBcOkAjvVD0bswtVa3GyRQbFSoy/cefw72N2/rjhWgrINjXn1/t7V3vUbHCMoTxK9lkIrUudp2VPstpbQtjWhr4uV6chuOG+YTIg 4GCVa5WX7cn4ln9Sp3tWi6IcTZ6JOZo0iecsaq16UeahUSs3qG skx2hCFwlAWYbcn4ln9Sr3tWnrL9uT8SzepV72rv5O9uvX9i8N TRdE+T0vZs+EJnoCndfa+W1uPXSok+9PdE+T0vZM+EJ0AuaU7O S3/cqyibcHktH2/wAj1NbBvNtD2Z7yoXbg8lo+3+R6mtg3m6h7M95XbL3OHzfcv+l FD2o/LH+xd8TVrqyLaj8sf7F3xNWuqnKft/RET1OrI9jH3OnHs4aldvQbzh3Ba2sj0idx0+Dw2iieio1s/Ep2DNVI74kw7y27alG9YCfRq0z1y39Qve1fWvaPYPRfUHW698y W2yHAaOrSOLA590aojagrTZqzfRqg9Dmj6FSli2J+Uh+gs+ekP Usn92r/AOJS6iLEJtlodwU7PT6r7/nUuuKr3fBfcozIbB5//qKvwuWurIrB5/8A6ir8Llrq7eUdYfKXn3Gabcedn5qnyq8bF/IrN/L0fgaqPtx52fmqfKrxsX8is38vR+BqV/dKfxf8kPsolAsh2NefX+3tXe9a8FkOxrz6/wBvau96bD2KvwJhox7tyfiWb1Kne1aJoXyah7Gl/bas725PxLN6lTvatE0L5NQ9jS/ttUbR7rS9Q+yh4hCF5xmCy/bk/Es3qVe9q1BZhtyfiWb1Kve1d/J3t16/sXhqXYaWp2azUnVRUuiiwlzWOc1ogDfEDBGiNk9C1GKG6Pxgu3 N4aCfSdEBMdkfmd/8ALU/kUHtPfhWj12fCVLo03SnVazTFsmxxtweS0fb/ACPU1sG83UPZnvKhduDyWj7f5Hqa2DebqHsz3lXl7nD5vuT+lF E2o/LH+xd8TVriyLaj8sf7F3xNWuqnKft/RET1BZLtiN3PStN/CKD59V135VrSy3bhpRVoP4abxPqkH9U5Nf8AmtvTENS37O6Iq2 ZtP03k9DKdSp3tCqm03V39pbwtpO6i8fMFbzUFZ1i4HUalXoNJ rf8AuKhbU9Qstr6ZzNJwPO1wXRTX+1nD14v7Fl2WjRdBY1bW7/7N0czKVId5Kl1EbFzNJ7vStNpd0bq4D3AKYXm1+21+ZFGZDYPP/wDUVfhctdWRWDz/AP1FX4XLXV2co6w+UtPuM02487PzVPlV42L+RWb+Xo/A1Ufbjzs/NU+VXjYv5FZv5ej8DUr+6U/i/wCQ+yiUCyHY159f7e1d71rwWQ7GvPr/AG9q73psPYqfAQ0Y925PxLN6lTvatE0L5NQ9jS/ttWd7cn4lm9Sp3tWiaF8moexpf22qNo91p+ofZQ8QhC84zBZht yePZvUq97Vp6y/bk/Es3qVe9q7+Tvbr1/YvDUtOyPzO/wDlqfyKD2nfwrR67PhKnNkfmd/8tT+RQe07+FaPXZ8JWv8A1anzfYn9LHG3B5LR9v8AI5TWwbzbQ 9me8qF24PJaPt/keprYN5uoezPeVEvc4fN9w+yih7Uflj/Yu+Jq11ZHtR+WVPYu+Jq1xU5T9v6IieoLPtuKj9zQfwVHt7TZ+ UrQVTttejesM+hVY7rvN+ZZbDK1eJENT3sQqbp4IfQsEdqo1v8 A2lTtjjtw005urdLQ3oIc4dwVg2qa19jzxbKdLqdUf8yquyuv4 Ppeq8fle1/aptPzL1Ka/wA1Sn5fn7mi1aNV2LD/AEdE+ky/2yXfqpVM9EUblnos9GlTb1NATteJVd5t+bMjIrB5/wD6ir8LlrqyKwef/wCoq/C5a6u7lHWHyl59xmm3HnZ+ap8qumx50aPs54LLSPVTCpe3HnZ+ ap8qs1K1blodjz+WxM6zSAHvKvNYtmpLew+yiT2Mn/R2f2NL4Qs02NefX+3tXe9aZsaH+ks/safwhZnsa8+v9vau96bN/wA3wf8AJMe8e7cn4lm9Sp3tWiaF8moexpf22rO9uT8SzepU72r RNC+TUPY0vgas6/utP1IfZQ8QhC84zBUbbT0G+vSp1aTS40rwc0Ym46MQNcEe9XlC 2oVnSmpruJTsyj6S0xTraHhhvVH02URTGL90BALbuciCeZetrP RdWzC0U6zS116meTFs4HWrk2zsDrwa0O9K6J680otpbSublCKy buWxZWKzthaFfarJFMS9jw8N9LAggcsEplsR05RpaNAquDHUWv a+m7B97GAGnHHCOfkVzSTrOwm8WNJ4S0E9cKsNoXNqnJZJ3RGL Kxn+1VoGpTL7RUaWBzbjARBIJlxjgwC0VCFTaK7rTxsN3YKvbY FG9o+vyNDuy4FWFccARBxHAVSlPBNS3MhFF2oKcWWq7hrR2WN+ qrm2VZJ0m0ca2j1zc7gFrjGAYAAcwjuXHUmkyWgnhIBPWuuG2Y a8qttS2LO56aIAHIvNas1jS5xAaMyer6da9oXD35lTIrFhprdi HClu9Q37pu3S1wBmMpha3SqBwDmmQQCDwg5L0hdO07Qq1srWVi ZO5mW2u7dnURSl5ZugcGgm6cM4HOvGyjSpOjLNZaTXucaVHdIa 7ebm1u9OGd4Zci1BC2htkYxisPZz1JxEXoSsKdjoF5ugUqczhG AGPSs10DvNMOrODhT3a0G+Wuuw4vumYyMrXkLOltShjy7XmFKx m2zGyP0la6VOzteadMFr6xaQwXiCYJGMR0rRrPSDGNYMmta0cz RA7l7Qs61fHGMErJEN3BCELnKlk+yh40dj9yPsoeNHY/crQhfS9H0N3E6MCKv9lDxo7H7kfZQ8aOx+5WV9QNzIHOYXN2bM XhJxiRMcydH0PDxGBFb+yh40dj9yPsoeNHY/crIKzSYDhPBInq6R1rtOq13ikHmIPcnR9Dw8RgRWvsoeNHY/cj7KHjR2P3Ky7q2YkTlEiZzyRurccRhniMOfgTo+h4eIwIrX2U PGjsfuR9lDxo7H7lZN2bE3hGGMjXkvTXAiQZCdH0PDxGBFZ+yh 40dj9yPsoeNHY/crKyq0zBBjOCDHOubs2JvCMpkR1p0fQ8PFjAit/ZQ8aOx+5H2UPGjsfuVkNZuG+GOWIx5l7BByTo+h4eIwIrH2UPG jsfuR9lDxo7H7lZTVGBkY4DEYk5QuGu0Rvm45YjGOBOj6Hh4sY EVv7KHjR2P3I+yh40dj9ysxcInUubq3hGU5jLh5k6PoeHixgRW vsoeNHY/cj7KHjR2P3Kybs3DfNxEjEYgZkci7urZiRPBInHkTo+h4eIwIr X2UPGjsfuR9lDxo7H7laEJ0fQ3cRgRV/soeNHY/chWhCdH0N3EYECEIXaWGekLFutzGA1945471wgEHDxkhaNFl1Z tQOAuimAI9AuJ1xiHkZYKTXlxwQDGz2EsqvfIN916IOG9a0Rj/AA+/kXdE2E0W3SQcAJgg4c5OHJzptT0o82cVS0Ak0wB67mg6/wCL3L1/1R1ymYaC9rySZutcwYt55nqKAdCxxWNTDFgaRGZBJBJ5jCbWXR FwEF8/dGkMMwSTedjice/hXi06Wc0NNzB1IugzIfdLg13JgceRSFKq51NrhF4tB5JInqQDV +jnGiad4SQwTBjeRqnkTmwWbc2XZmC6DEYEkgHhiYnWmTNJPNK m8hv3lRrYE4AzOZzwXj/qztzovhs1JnOGwCZzyEYoDlPQZiqC/wDEa9uAyvve/WdV+I19KWqaMJD98JfVpVMjA3Pc8AJ13Penz60Mvck8/BCjjpVxpUnNaLz3ljm8DgHXgOZzYQCj9FzTLJE7rusxgCX3iAA cMJHSeFP6jTdIbgYgHgTN1rfuwpgDxGvJ4JLgdeWGHOvLNIyyq TdvMNWBwinrPu60BxmivutycQ5oeSMIIaSSADqIJwPIEP0c4tp C+CWB4Jc2b15pbJAPLMLrbe4lo3ommx5JmCXOiG836hdp2t5q1 GG5DGh04zvr8fCJ50A4pWa7SFMGYYGSdcCJKZ2HRJpOkOBAY5g EZNLpaJnIDBJP0w4U2vuiTZ3VtcEtu7xvKZTi0W57ajW3RddcE 4y1zjheHAQDjw86ATdoeaVOneg02XWvAxDgGgOAnLCCNYJC92z RZqOJvAAsYzLEXHl0gznj0JWzW0urPYRAbiDmCBAzBwM6jHSny AEIQgBCEIAQhCAFwrqEB5uDKAgtHAvS4UAnfaSRIJ15T0rtKq1 w3pBHIQUxs2jrjw69N3dY4Turg43jriISui7EKNNrJkgAE8MCP 8CAXvNmJbI1YYdC5ujIGLYIJGWIGZCRs9kLHOMggvc/LEFwGE8GHckKeiopUWF2NKMY8ZsFrhHAQUA/NVuMkYCTiMBqJ5EFzRGIxOGWJPBwlNLTo+86qZjdKQpZZRfx5f G9y6+xuNyXDePa4Yamtux1klAOm1Gl0AiecTguOewCSWgZThHL im1GxubUe+WkuBAwyH5RzTeJ4SeRIjRf3VSneBD7xbI8UvG+/wD0XH/cUA/FRhiC05xlqzhG6MxMtwzOGHOUgbHv2OBAuse2Izvlpnk8X3pCy 6MuDxp+6bSGGps4u4TigH7C05QY5l7upto+xCkHAHekyB6Igb0 ckzHPCdoDyGr0hCAEIQgBCEIAXCV0qL0haC525tMAReIzxyaDq wxPOFKVyG7Dmrb2AwCXEamiY5zkOkrwNIjW14HDAd7mklMqbgM BAjUNQ5tSig/crQ5zqz3Ne2BSuyAc5BaMoaQpaSKKV2WyjWa4S0gjkSig6Twd/Tc2eeA7kd9dUqXs9UOaHDX1jhB5ZVcu4ur94qm1st1OkJqPDRy 5nmAxKT0rbdyplwEuya3hccujWeZZ/aLRUquL3BryZBdfkcEDUByBVc0si1nqTNp2zbBTddc+prxFN8Y dGSs1h0rSreI8E+iQWu7JxXztsj3KlaHNDDdA8VrphzhiGkjLL DUrtoypUFNjheefGa8uggHEYtGYymAjxRzksi0sDV4P0NgC6oL Yrpd1emW1BFRkT/ENTufh5VN3lKdygPeAJJAHCU38LnxGvdygQOguIB6EnSbum/d4ubG6o1OI1k5jgUJV2XCnaalGrTuhviuBkuGGTdefDrUSmo6g sHhgHjtczlcMO00kDpKcBwVQ0tthWWg1rnCo8Ow+7beg+iTMTy L1oXZbQrVzTpX2jOHAAes0AktxOIIHDqKKcWWUJNXRbkLkqM0r ajO5sMGJcRmBqA5T3dCsVHNo0ixhgmXei0Fx6Yy6YSI0q3Wx4H DAPuaSfcqvsmtLqNjrupSHim4MLWl5D3YAhozIJnvSGwyq82Yb o5zjhvn3i4mN8STyqjnZpF1C8XLcXuhaGvEtIP6c41JVV5roN5 phw18PI4awpqx2gPYHDpHARgQrJlBdCEKQcKrhpl5JvOEvcTGs XjhPNHUrGVAWioKReDmHEtnWHEkdGY/2lWi0s2VcZNpRIjTulGWQt3jjfyuNmSOH/lR+ibWWWo13vqMpVWiluJIcwPkFrhB3p8YYYYqJtlvfUmo85E4 dJAA4BknOh7Wy0MpUyJdTcw48IwJwzwlca2lOfkerU5LwUcTd5 cEX6rZmPi80GDIka050afxBqD8P9zWk+8nrSUhLaMG9LvTcXDm gNb1hoPSux2seUmyI2UVG32Ne0OF1xg5SSB3SqZpPQrfGsk2d4 M3Wn7t+MwWflJ4R71d9lFHxKmoS0/7oj3iOlV9z+Qriq9o66TssiraN2G0BRcK181nuLt0a47zgAB8b hM5lONhTw1tWz1ib1F8BwyLTOrViD1qXr2sN/K49GCgbTVbQtjK4m5WYWVNd17bt1xAykCOhHOTWbLKMW2ral50 K+m2uzc83XmnPK6TrHC0Kw6WdFF++uyLt7gvG7PRMqt7FmCpVF RuLWNJkek4QPcXKz6Ts260Xs9JhHSclvC+E55pYrGTWzT1oFQx bLzDVDSzK8AcNzd/6erk51Eaes9sJc9gaZG/axxc92XjOPjZgxhzKX03sItVUOqUnUXNBvTeILbue9DSZEeLwh RlO11RcIfTq4ibkt4Zlr8hvTr4V58nKGctfM9WVChKXUd8ipWZ 1cl1OlTdeccd9N2Mt7kHZ4yFftg1ppWWq1leA+oxzHOADiXu5u UlNK9e1VXf6ayvffEmpvYk/xNMEfVTGxXYhXZXdXtMh4DYbjiXyGAO8U4iSAcFpTk5WaVjCcI QTuzT7BVvU2OP5mNPWAoCuSalQz+dw6G739FY6FO61rRqAHUIV X000MqPY6QHy4EYYHODqMz1hd0tDz1qMK9I1LRcJhl1rTOqQSY Gs+Kn7LGaNxpcCCSBHIJVQ2G7JDWdudYAVGuN4xBBGG+GvUJ5A rNpbS9F4DW1W7o0yM8HDUREwVx26zl+o9KdOUEod35mSYYE+0K YNRureu6XAg/CFUrNsrpPcGQ4vmCAMByyrboDfMdU1PIu+q3I9JLj0hdUZXZw1 KUqeUlYlUIQtDIFF6b0Qy0AXhvm4tMkc4JGoqTlEo1fUKVndMy zSmhalIw6m5rRN2N8I4b2s88Jzse0fTNKrdMPLmxEg3mzGAx1x ktJXIWEdnjGWI76nKNSdLm2Rdmsz3gXxdZAka3cnIOfE8AUs0I lErc8/I8V6Ie0tcJBEEKsW3Rb6eQL2ekBJHrAd49ytUrkqk6alqXjPDo UVxbOY5krQ0U+tgGYa3OG9A6cXcw9yuuCFktnXeaOu+4a6L0ey hTDGDlJ1knMlO0SiV0JWMbjJ1mLHlzMQcXU8BLvSaT+bkmE2fR oHdMdzdUzJwcDAbvQ8QMBqEFS0rhUWQuM2V6bWhtODhAawA92A 6YCLHZnb01TJaIGWeRJjC8eTASU8C7KmwuEJlpXRza7YOBBlru A/qE9lEoLlAqbGKVKq+q6k5r33bzwZa66IEGIHNgV7qWKk7W7oIJ 6gFe5RhyLCWzxk7s3jtM4qyZStD7DaYeal17bxkucTecOAN/KOXAq6sYAAAIAEAcgXZRK2jFRVjOpVlUd5O51C5KFJS5ivhlTj H9o/VHhlTjH9p31SCF9TgjuPz3nJ739Rfwypxj+0fqjwypxj+076pB CYI7hzk97+ov4ZU4x/aP1XPC6nGP7R+qRQmCO4c5Pe/qLeF1OMf2j9UeF1OMf2nfVNaxMb3OR1SJ9y8se6QCMJGPJB/WOtVainoaR5xq+LiPPC6nGP7R+q74XU4x/aP1TBr36268+Qu+nclHvdqEjDnxP0TqbuBLVS9sXEd+GVOMf2n fVc8LqcY/tO+qZ33w7ewbsjn4EX3+iPza+A4YcuadXdwFqni4jzwupxj+07 6rvhlTjH9p31TOo50C6JM4j/ADljFF90TdxnKdXCnU3cCP8AJa+LiPPDKnGP7TvqueGVOMf2j9 UyvvjxY6V6ZUdOLYGP6R+vUnU3cCbVPFxHfhdTjH9o/VHhdTjH9o/VIoVsEdxlzk97+ot4XU4x/ad9UeF1OMf2nfVIoTBHcOcnvf1F/DKnGP7R+qPDKnGP7TvqkEJgjuHOT3v6i3hdTjH9p31QkUJgjuH OT3v6ghCFYoCEIQHHOgSdSbm3NgnHxb3d9QnKFDT7i8XBdpCLr QAQDOIB65+hXllrB1HGOXPDvS7nAZkLm6DhHWqu67zRYbdlibb S27exjmxxiMOlBtI5dY6kpuowxGIkcyHVRwjrS/mQlHwsRNsby/4HH5SvRtTZjHE3emY/UJRtQGYI5f8AlcdVaJJIwxOKi73onq+FnndxBJnAwcNeHWvAtj cc9fuLh8vvS5cMpHNK4KonNG3vRCw+FngVxBOOBA6TH1C8+FN5 cyDzjk50puo4Rr92a7fHCODNTnvRPVWsWeDaBBIBwLRweMQP19 yKdcOMCcpy1JVCmz3lLwtpxBCEKxmCEIQAhCEAIQhACEIQAhCI Qmx5ewEQf81LwbM2QYyIOvMJVChpMspSWSbEnWdpjDIQOaI7ke DtmY4NZ1ZJVCWRPOT3sTFBuOGYjMrz4Izg1RmcojuASyEwxHOT 3s8PotJkgTEdGP1K4KLQZhKohMKIxz3sR8GbjhnPvzXDZWzMa5 zOeP1KXhcUYYlucqbwQhCsZAhCEAIQhACEIQAhCEALj3AAk5DE 8y6hGStbkS1zvBqpZN69Vg5mL5y6Mk5pu++AYd5uRvRlevNu9M X09C8OqxqPRzT/AMLHm7Wz3HVz2K6S1vx+xEUahinj/wC6eM9Uvgc2SeW5rr15mLmAG56bcbzY4eDlhOTW/hdnwcy9brhN12rUoUFa1y8qzxKSj+N/iOWV0saRra09YTTR9YF9Ug4F7Q3Pi2GANWtOzV/hOUrrqkflOr3n9Fd92ehkn2stfPzI7S4JcADiaVbWcwGxEa84S 9oql9EXDvns3pkTlJPOnO7fwu1av84FzdjhvTmB1gGVXDm3fUu qjwxVtBlaKwqWY1MjuTjnk67j0ghdtzQ2zvIObQc9cDIp7u38L urklAq/wu6v84PeowrPPusSqrVrLK99eAjZrpvDCT4wBkRiBjqMJHRTob BdJD3U2k5kMJieExrTt1V0wGziBPJBJP8AnCvBrHDeHJx6RMat Y71NrNeQu5Jq2o30q4tLXtmWS4gfmZIDhGvAk9CNHHf1rxnfNz 1AsaYHJq6E8FXAG6cRwZc69sfM4EYphvK9yvOWp4WvX1uQ2j6h uWW6d8QL+ve3DN7puqaQhXhDCrGderzjvbf+4IQhXMAQhCAEIQ gBeKz4a4jMNJ6hK9rzUZIIORBHWoemRaNrq40sFsNQOkDAMIiR 4zZyOOHDrxXKVuJZRMC9V54G9Ljz5DrS9KyNaZEzcazP8rZu9I vHrXGWNoaxoneRdOsEYZ8xIWSjO2v5c6pTo4m0sv6+54tlodTZ JDZvsbriHOAmJwOK92W0FzqgMQxwaDiJlodjPOu1LKCIJd4wfM 4yCCOjAYLrbOAXkTv8TjyBuHBgAptK/l/6VxUsNu/+1/Z4sdq3RriBBa5zY5sWnpBB6Ujou3uqjEAbym/CR44MiDjAgY5JyyzgFxEy6JyjAQCBGa82extZF2cGCmMfyjLpC i07olyo2lZa2t5CFG3OLaTnARUN3CcDBIzOI3vIltIWk02XgAY MuGPijFxEawBPQu0rE1tzMhnignImccBnietLPYDE/wCYRipUZ4Wr5kSnSxppZd/58BvTtRdVLBF0Ma4HWSSR1YLtC1h1R7PQukcodI9zmkdC7QsbW EFsiGBgGq63ELrbKA4OkyGlurEEzjhiiU+/fwEpUXe27L4iNC2kvuODQ6ZGcOZMSMcwcDzoqWwteWuAAPiOxx IEua4TnGXSnBs7TdJxLSS06wSCD3oq2ZrhDhIvB2OpzYIjqCjD O2pKqUb9nK340eBXO6lmEBgdOuSSIz5ElZLYXOuOAa7PCYLCCW ubj0EJxuAvl+MlobyQDI95QLO2WnW0EA64OB/zkUuMt5XHTtZru4iFltl9rH70NfMA5xjEGcThlCeJu2xtF2Jhp LmicATIw6zhlinCtBSSzKVnBvqAhCFcxBCEIAQhCAEIQgBCEIA QhCAEIQgBCEIAQhCAEIQgBCEIAQhCAEIQgBCEID//2Q==http://exercise4learning.com/Images/GoWild.jpg = community, exercise, diet, meditation

== free yourself from the affliction that is 'civilization' shaped in materialism giving homage to the primitive reward system - 'to eat thy neighbour' - to beat other human beings in competitive practices

Fact is - is that we're not civilized until the properly human reward system to make oneself better for group benefit - is seized.

We're all dead shortly after being born - the only lasting legacy 'd be NOT to drop the baton.
Current generations have taken to setting the baton on fire.


http://www.addforums.com/forums/data:image/jpeg;base64,/9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQAAAQABAAD/2wBDAAUDBAQEAwUEBAQFBQUGBwwIBwcHBw8LCwkMEQ8SEhEPER ETFhwXExQaFRERGCEYGh0dHx8fExciJCIeJBweHx7/2wBDAQUFBQcGBw4ICA4eFBEUHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh 4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh7/wAARCAFaAOADASIAAhEBAxEB/8QAHAAAAQQDAQAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAQFBgcBAwgC/8QAVRAAAQIEAwEKCAsECAQFBQAAAQIDAAQFEQYSITEHCBNBUVV hdLLRFBUXIjU2cYEyN3N1kZKTlKGisTRygrMWIzNCYsHCwyRS4 fAlJidEg1OEo9Li/8QAGwEAAQUBAQAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAECAwQFBgf/xABDEQABAwIABwwHCAEEAwAAAAABAAIDBBEFEiExcaGxBhMUMz RBUVJykcHhFRYiNVNhgSMyNmJjktHwJCZCQ7JUgvH/2gAMAwEAAhEDEQA/AJtVqhPoqs2hE9MpSl9YADqgAMx02wl8Z1LnCb+2V3wVn0xO9Y c7RhLHhFXVzid4DznPOelcfJK/HOU50q8Z1LnCb+2V3weM6lzhN/bK74SwRBwuo657ymb6/pKVeM6lzhN/bK74PGdS5wm/tld8JYIOF1HXPeUb6/pKVeM6lzhN/bK74PGdS5wm/tld8JYIOF1HXPeUb6/pKVeM6lzhN/bK74PGdS5wm/tld8JYIOF1HXPeUb6/pKVeM6lzhN/bK74z4zqXOE39srvhJGtxBUSQvLs90SRVMznWdKR9SlEjzncUv 8Z1If8Av5v7ZXfB4zqXOE39srvhtDbtzmdIBvs/75IwGXTfM8q9xs6IuXd/5H/ZS5evtTn4zqW3xhN/bK74x4zqXOE39srvhv4NdyS4o3It0QcE5e/DKGgFoTGNuU/9klz19qcPGdR5wm/tld8Z8Z1LnCb+2V3w3JacCwovKIB1B49I3RWlqJWWxZSfqUxz3 DM66VeM6lzhN/bK74PGdS5wm/tld8JYIh4XUdc95Td9f0lKvGdS5wm/tld8HjOpc4Tf2yu+EsEHC6jrnvKN9f0lKvGdS5wm/tld8HjOpc4Tf2yu+EsEHC6jrnvKN9f0lKvGdS5wm/tld8HjOpc4Tf2yu+EsEHC6jrnvKN9f0lKvGdS5wm/tld8KqTUJ9dVlELnplSVPoBBdUQRmGm2GuFVG9MSXWG+0InpKu czsBec45z0p8Ur8cZTnRWfTE71hztGEsKqz6YnesOdowliCrF6 h+k7UyX750ogseSOea7jGrY73TJXDUlUJmRoxm+BCZdZQpxI+E skakmxsOLkiabpuH5jC1ERibBrsxIv07KZhhDilNvtXFypJPnE cZ5Lk7I3nbnhC6KGaTFkkGQWyDoufmrZo8Uta91i5WlBFcb3+q ztawpU6nUXy9MP1Z1ajxC6GzYDiGuyLBnZlmTlHpuYVlZZbU44 eRIFzGRW0LqWqdTXuQbKtLEY5Cxbbi1+KMxz1hrEVW3Tt0tElP T83KUdIW6JWXdLYKEjQEg3udLn/AKWd92qUmsCLpddwrPzkiHHS06z4QpxskC4OVZIN9bg6GNo7m8 SdlLJLaRwva2TQTf5dCtcCs8ROd7RV3QRGdzLFCcX4Tl6sUJbm LluZQNgcG23QdD74k0c7U076aZ0MmdpsVSewscWuzhEGyNU3Lo mpVyWcU4lDiSkqbWUKHSCNQY5i3Sa1X8PbolQpMrX6umSZdQUI M44SEKSlVr3vxxq4FwN6Uc5jX2IF83Mp6Wm4QSAbELqKDWGeSo koKIqRTM1Esv5XFLM44XRoNAsnMBpsHKY5wxHX8QU7dHm6QK/V0yTNRLIQZxy/B57Wve+yJsGYCbhF72RyWLekeafT0gnJDXZl1PBY8kJaVINU6T Esy7MuJuVZn3lOq16VEm3REF3XqLMMYanK1SazVpSfS83lS3Nr Da87iUZct7D4V9OSM6ko46ipEJfa5sDb+2UEbGvfi3ViQQz4Xo IocpwZqVQn31oSHXZqYUvMRxgE2TtOz8YhW7sy9ScKTVeptSqc rO8O2kFuccCACbGyL2H0Q6moIqirFO2TObA2znRdOjhD5MQHOr Ngij97y5PYn8azFarFWmVSTjBZT4a4kDNnJuAdR5oi8AbAccLh XBowfUGAvxiM+SySoh3l5Ze5COO0B02xTm+D8Lw7SZSpUirVWW fmpxQctOuZbEE2Cb2AvyRt3CJZ7EuFnqnWKtWH5lqdU2kifdSL BKSBYKsdSYvHATBQiuMvsnJmy9HSpuCDed+xsit6CDkiI7qEgP 6LVWrsztQl5qVklraLE0ttIUkEglKTY++Mekp21E7Yi618nTnV aJmO4NJzqXQRzpuFT1WxViyap1artYfYbkVvJCZ5xHnBaBe4PI ow/wCOcSYl3McWSyEVGZrFEnUZ0tTq8602NlJSvaCNLe3WN+bcw5l SaRkoMlrgWtf69KuOoCJN7DvaV2Qqo3piS6w32hDTRKlK1ikSl UkllUvMtBxBO2x4j0jZDtRvTEl1hvtCMCnY6OqaxwsQ4bVUjBE gB6UVn0xO9Yc7RhDMGzDn7phdWfTE71hztGEMx+zufun9IWflT u0dqH8YdK5R3HSTuu0q/HMu9hcdUVWURUKXNyLoBRMsraUDsspJH+ccrbjvxu0nrLnYXHW fFHW7s3llbE4Zw0bStHCjrStPyVX72plcvgioS7icq2qs6gjkI Q2ImuPSRgmtkbfAXuwYaNy6VEorFLKRZP8ASGZUByBSWz/nDvj31IrfUHuwYya9++4Yx+lzTsVWU41Tf5jwXP8AvaD/AOoy+ou/qmJ5vpvU+mdf/wBtUQTez/GMvqTv6pid76b1PpnXx/LVHUV34lh0DYVpTH/PYve9bJ/oVUBf/wB+ewmLcio9636l1Dr57CYtyOR3S+85dPgFmV3KHIEcyb5aVTL 7o4fSLGZk2nFdJGZH+kR03HPm+pYCa9R5jL8OVWm/LZX/APX4xobjJMXCQb0g/wAqfBbrT26VduDZtU9hGjzi9VvyLK1e0oBP43jmvd9YVK7q9Rc CciXQy6i3H/VpBP0gxfO4tMma3MaItRuUslv6qlAfgBFO755kt47lHyLB2RRY +xShGlubG84ami7Q1qag9mqc3SuiaTNCdpUnOpNxMMIdH8SQf8 4je6gVKp1HlUnSZrMo2scqQor/AFQIU7lr5mNzqgOE3IkW0fVGX/KE+OE8PifCErfQ1FbxHLwbK1COcpo96wm4dUuPcCVQY3FnI6Lq WxXG+M+LGZ6w12oseK43xnxYTPWGu1EeAveUPaCKPj26VFt6h+ y4i/flv0ci8Io/eo/suIv35b9HIvCLu6z3pJ9NgUuEeUOVPb6j1UpXXD2DCvev+oM38 4r7CISb6j1UpXXD2DCveweoM384L7CI1X/hhva8VYd7vGlWqIju6d8XeIPm97smJHEc3Tvi7xB83vdkxymDO WRdobVnwca3SFSG9d0x9PfNi/5rcP2+w0ThwjbeZ/2oYd696/T3zYv+a3D9vsPgYb9sz/tR6FMf9TR9nwK2ne8BoU53BFFW5RRr8XDfzlxYtG9MSXWG+0Ir ncB+Keke17+cuLGo3piS6w32hHGYQ98P7fisuXlR0+KKz6Ynes OdowhmP2dz90/pC6s+mJ3rDnaMIZj9nc/dP6Rmz8qd2jtUD+MOlcn7jnxu0rrLnYVHWkcmbjnxuUnrLnYVH WQjqt2/K4+z4laGFeNboSGk0timuTzjK1kzs0qaczW81RSlJA6LJEI8fe pFb6g92DD3DHj71IrfUHuwY5illdLVxudnu3aFQjcTICfkqB3s/wAYy+pO/qmJ3vpvU+mdfH8tUQPezfGKrqTv6pieb6f1PpnXx/LVHeV/4lh0DYVsTcvave9c9S6h189hMW5FR71z1LqHXz2Exbkcjul95y 6fALMruUORFK76uUUukUOdA81p91pR6VJSR2DF1RWO+Wly9ucB wC/ATra/wUn/AFQu5qXe8JxHpNu8WS0DsWoat29wmOH3M2UE/s8061+IV/qiF76yWCZ2gzml1tvN/VKT/qMPG9XmivDVXk7+azNIcA/fTb/RDFvqHFuVmkMJBKGZZa1dBWq3+mOlpIjHumeB8z3jzV6JuLhA2 +asbcFmBMbltK87MpsuNq12WcVYfRb6YcqvkmN02gsk3MrITcw ByFRbQD9BVEQ3r8yHcCTksVXWzPqNuQKQi34gxKZUh7dfnTa/g9FaRfkKnVK7oxq2HesJVR6A49+TxVSZuLPJ9VL4rjfGfFhM9Y a7UWPFcb4z4sJnrDXajNwF7yh7QUNHx7dKi29R/ZcRfvy36OReEUfvUf2XEX78t+jkXhF3dZ71k+mwKXCPKHf3mVP b6f1UpXXT2DCvew+oM384L7CISb6j1TpXXD2DCvew+oM384L7C I1pPww3teKsnkA0q1ojm6f8XeIPm97smJHEb3T/AIu8QfN73ZMcngvlkXaG1Z1PxrdIVI71319nvmxz+a3D9vsPgY b9sz/tQw7131+nfm1f81uH7fY/Aw57Zn/aj0Kb8Tx9nwK2ne8ApzuBfFRR/wD5v5y4sWjemJLrDfaEVzuBfFRR/wD5v5y4sajemJLrDfaEcZhD3w/t+Ky5eVHSis+mJ3rDnaMIZj9nc/dP6QurPpid6w52jCGY/sHP3T+kZs/Kndo7VA/jDpXKG44L7rlJ6y52FxfG6bi2v4Pk3Ko3TKdM03hENt5nlh0kj W4tbaDx8kUPuOfG5SusudhUXNvlfi2/+8a/1R6BhqKObDFPFK0Oa5tsukrZq2h1UxrhcELO5jj/ABBjaYdWxSKbLyss62mYKphefKq9ykWsTYHbEwx96j1vqD3YMV ZvUj/wVd+UZ/RUWnj71IrfUHuwY53CsENNhdsMLA0NLc3zsqNQxrKoMaLAEKgN 7N8YqupO/qmJ5vp/U+mdfH8tUQPezfGMvqTv6pieb6b1PpnXx/LVHQ1/4lh0DYVem5e1e9636l1Dr57CYtyKj3rfqXUOvnsJi3I5HdL7zl 0+AWZXcociIRu6Sxmdy6rAJuWw24Pc4m/4XibwyY9ljOYHrcqkXUuQeCR05CR+IijguTeqyJ/Q4bVFA7Fkafmqd3qb9qlXJa/wmmlhPLYqF/xhbu+ynhia/OJsrwBqQQf8OZTpI/FP0xGd7HMoY3QJhhS7cPILSgcqgpKv0Bif42k01bC+6Q6wf/cNC/yDTRUPpSqPQKv/AB8OOm6QzW4DYteb7OsLtGvImXepTCTLV6V4wtlz8FD/ACixcNJUvdDxbMFOiRJsJPsaUoj84iot6zN8HiuqSZ2PSXCD2p Wn/wDYxb2544Zl7Es0rUrrj6ArjytpQ2OzGVuij3urqn9LW6yP4Ve vGLLIfkFK4rjfGfFhM9Ya7UWPFcb4z4sJnrDXajncA+8oe0FUo +PbpUW3qP7LiL9+W/RyLwij96j+y4i/flv0ci8Iu7rPekn02BSYR5Q5U9vqPVSldcPYMK97Af8AyDN/OK+wiEm+n9VKV109gwr3r/qDN/OK+wiNaT8MN0+KsHkH1VqxHd0/4u8QfN73ZMSLjtEd3T/i7xB83vdkxyeDOWRdobVnwca3SFSG9d9fp35tX/Nbh+32PwcOe2Z/2oYd696/T3zYv+a3D9vsPgYc9sz/ALUehTfiePs+BW073gNCnO4F8U9H9r385cWLRvTEl1hvtCK53A fiopHte/nLixqN6YkusN9oRxmEPfD+34rLl5UdKKz6YnesOdowhmP7Bz90/pC6s+mJ3rDnaMIZgXYc/dP6Rmz8qd2jtUD+MOlcobjnxu0rrLnYXFzb5X4tj1xr/VFM7jvxu0rrLnYXFzb5T4tj1xr9FR6Hhb37SaBtK2qnlkajm9S/Ya78oz+iotTH/qPXOoPdgxVe9S/Yq58oz+iotTH3qRW+oPdgxz2Hff31b4KlV8s+oVAb2b4xVdRd/VMTzfS+p9M6+P5aoge9n+MZXUnf1TE8303qfTOvj+WqN2u/EsOgbCrk3L2r3vXPUuodfPYTFuRUe9b9S6h189hMW5HI7pfecu nwCzK7lDkRpnmeHkn2P/qNqR9ItG6CMWN2K4OHMqoNjdcn7iTvgW61SkKNgXXWveUKTF34 elhUMB4tXsTPzlQKT0ap/wBJijKUlFB3bGmVKs3LVstlR/5eFy3+iOiNy1gr3OpEPj9rQ88R0OuLWPwVHpe6d29hlQ3/AHYg7iStzCBtZ/TZULvd5nwbdNlUE+a+w62fq5v9MXvuRJJweZkm5mZ+aeJ5bvKF/wAI5w3PpkUPdIknHzkDEwtpZvsuFJv+MdNbl0v4LueUNvjVJod PtX557UQbsmhrMcf7sXVjJuFBb2um3ipJFcb4z4sJnrDXaix4r jfGfFhM9Ya7UcfgH3lD2gs2j49ulRbeo/suIv35b9HIvARR+9R/ZcRfvy36OReEXt1nvWT6bApcI8ocqe31HqpSuunsGFe9g9QZv5 xX2EQk31HqpSuuHsGFe9g9QZv5xX2ERrSfhhunxVk5KAaVMVzC juosy2c5BRXFlF9L8OgX/Ax63T/i7xB83vdkwzys0H93aclwf2bD6UH2l4K/RQh43Tvi7xB83vdkxj4mJWUoPQzaqgFpY/oqQ3r3r9O/Njn81uH7fY/Bw57Zn/ahh3rvr9O/Ni/5rcP2+x+Dhz2zP+1HXTfiePs+BWo73gNCnO4F8U9I9r385cWLR vTEl1hvtCK53Avioo//AM385cWNRvTEl1hvtCOMwj74f2/FZcvKjpRWfTE71hztGETySppaRtKSBC2s+mJ3rDnaMJRGZUm1S 8/mO1V5OMOlcnbkKFI3XqWhYykTToIPLlVFy75Qf+m5641+ioZsZ 7m1ap2O2cZYPZZmFCYEy7JqWEHPe6rXsMpudOnSHfH8hX90SRp 9HlKRN0mRS+Hp2YnglBFhYJQm91bSb7Nkd5VVUFXX01cx4xGj2 soyWucozrXklZLNHMDkAy/JR3epfsVc+UZ/RUWtjxJVgqtpSLkyD3YMMG5hgdWC6hW0MuhyQmVtGVzKu5YJN8 2nKYnDiEONqbcSFoWMqkkXBB2gxzeGq2KTCpqYzdt2nUFRqpmu qC9ubIuZt7QD5Rl9Sc/VMTzfSi+D6Z18fy1Qnk9z2s4Hx6jEWGZQVSlnMFyocCXm21DUD N8K2ltbm2zjhVulUbE+6Q9T5CSpD9JpUssuOzE+QhSlEW0bBKr AX9t46SaeCowvFXseN7AykkZM+S2e6vPkY+pbMD7Nl63rqFJwT PqUkgKn1WP8CYtqGfB+HpHC+H5ajyAJaZF1LO1xR1Kj0kw8Rxe GKtlXWyTMzE5Fl1Mgklc4c6IIIIzgoFyRu0S/gW6nWQ3dN3w8COVSQo/iY6ewKyZbBdFYUNW5BkEfwCKd3adzzFFdx29VKPSjMyrzLd1h5 CbKAynQkHii9KeyZany8tf+yaSj6ABHbboa2ObB1KxrgTbLlzW AzrWrpWvgjAP9suQN0mXMnui11pvzMtQdUm3ECskfrHW+HmUy+ H6cwgWS3KNIA5LIAiid0vc3xVVN0efqdNpCn5B51C+EDqBfzU5 tCq+2/FHQaEhCEoSLBIsBC7qa6KekpmscCbXNjmyDOjCEofHGAV6iuN8 Z8WMz1hr9YseIHus0XEeKqBMUGnU6UQ0t1C0TLs3YnLqboy6fT HPYDxW10cjiAGkE3NlSpCBM0nmUL3qP7LiL9+W/RyLwiqNxvCGK8EGfam5GRmm55xolaJzKWwnNc2KDf4XRsi2CBm IBi5unfHNhB0sbg5ptYg3zAKSucHzFzTcFU7vp/VSldcPYMK97Bb+gM584L7CIUbsOGMU40kmKdKU+Rl25aZLiXVz t+ETYgaBHm327TCDB+FcfYZwJP4dkZSmeFTbqlJmzOGzYUkJNk 5dTpobxtMMMmBGUhlaH43WGa6tAtdSCMuF7pNuX1dFc3dcUz7K wtkyqm2lA3CkocbSCOggX98WHunfF3iD5ve7JiC7ie53X8I4jn ajVlShaelC0ngnSpWYrQrZboMTjH0rXKnQ5+j0ynyzzc5KraLz s1weRSgR8HKb8XGIp4RdTvwtEYXgsaG5b5MiinxOEtxTkFlSW9 d9fp75sX/Nbh+32HwMOe2Z/2oUblO5/jHBOIH6q5JU6dDsqpjIJwotdSVXvkP8Ay/jDhiTc8xPjnFjFRxTNSdPpkunI3LSrpcVlvc6kAXPGfwjanqqU YZFdvrcRrem5JsRkCtvlj4XvuNkAUk3B2nGtymjJcQUkh1QBHE XVkH6IsKjemJLrDfaEN0hKS8hIsSUo0lmXYbDbaE7EpAsBDjRv TEl1hvtCOIlqRU4R34ZnPvrWUX75PjdJRWfTE71hztGEsWM7uY 1WfdXPtz8olEyovJSrNcBWoB06Y8+Sasc4yf5u6LtTuewk+Z7h EbEno6VPJQzl5Iaq6jMWJ5JqxzjJ/m7oPJNWOcZL83dEPq5hP4J1JnAKjqqu4IsTyTVjnGS/N3QeSasc4yX5u6D1cwn8E6kcAqOqq7gixPJNWOcZL83dB5Jqxz jJfm7oPVzCfwTqRwCo6qruCLE8k1Y5xkvzd0HkmrHOMl+bug9X MJ/BOpHAKjqqu4IsTyTVjnGS/N3QeSasc4yX5u6D1cwn8E6kcAqOqq7gixPJNWOcZL83dB5Jqxz jJfm7oPVzCfwTqRwCo6qruCLE8k1Y5xkvzd0HkmrHOMl+bug9X MJ/BOpHAKjqqu4IsTyTVjnGS/N3QeSasc4yX5u6D1cwn8E6kcAqOqq7gixPJNWOcZL83dB5Jqxz jJfm7oPVzCfwjqRwCo6qruCLE8k1Y5xkvzd0HkmrHOMl+bug9X MJ/COpHAKnqqu4IsTyTVjnGS/N3QeSasc4yX5u6D1cwn8E6kcAqOqq7gixPJNWOcZL83dB5Jqxz jJfm7oPVzCfwjqRwCo6qruFVG9MSXWG+0InXkmrHOMl+buj01u Y1WQdRPuT8opEsoPKSnNchOpA06Imptz2EmTMcYjYEdHSnx0NQ Hglqtij38UyfyCOyIVQmo/oiT+QR2RCqPZV1CxGdIIjWIaxU5TEUhTJFhLqZpha1EIuWyHGk BR1HmgOKJ49NIEWUl0g0iLV+vT9OrqJVCGfBckut1xafgBb3Bq JOYcWzQ67dI9Viuz0nikU1CWhK+A+EqdUi/BkLykqOYebbkF7kcUCFJ9IxaI1V61UJfEqabLpaDCpFUwXlIuG 1BVrq84eb7Be5iSKKi3cGxI22vAhZjOkRelVyoO4dqNSmWm3Ji nl9lbTSbJcdaKgSnUnKbCw2wqplTm3amuRceYmEiRbmg80jKm6 ioEbToctx77kwIT9pBpDNh+ozM/T6bMuqaKpqTDzgQnQLsjQa7LqItDfhjEM3P1hUhOJaRmbfcZsg guBuYU2SDciwGTbY3J4oEKU2jGkNmJZ6Zp8g3MSqA4tUwy0UWB JC3EpNrkC9ibaw1yeIJmcptFdRwSXJ6aXLPuBBytqQlzMACduZ vKNSLnj0uIspPBEbXW50URqbAZDpqiZJRKDlUnwngSoC+hI12n WFEvP1SblKw1KqlDNykwpmXcUg8GvzELGYA30zZTY8WzigSJ8E Z0hqwrUl1ihSlVUkITNtJdQjjQkjYTxmNFdq8xT6tTWUNpXKvP BmaXY3bKwQ0b7LFYCf4hAlT5pBpEexBVahS51t0JbXTlWacKWy XGXFfAWddUE+adNLg7L2xVqtOS1b8BaflWmfFj02XXUEhKkLQB fUebZRv8AqIEKRWg0hJR5pc7R5OddaLK35dDqm/8AkKkgke68RKtYpq1OTPslqWU+zOMcArglZTLOPBok6/CBzbDxg22wIU4tBpDSZ6Y/pQmmhTfAGTL583zswWE7b7LHkhJIVWoivmlz7bYDiS9LPNtkJc bG1J1NlpJF+UEEcYAiykMFoiTOIah4TMJUJdaWq0KeEBBzKbKE nMDfaMxJ02JOg2xLYEItCSsD/wAInPkF9kwrhLWPRE58gvsmBFkUf0RJ/II7IhVCWj+iJP5BHZEKoEIjUqWYVMJmFMtl5IslwpGYDkB2xtg gQtDslKOuKcdlWVrWnKpSmwSRyHojy7ISDys7snLuKtlzKbBNh xXtCmI1hldRfm6g7OPPhlmcfQ0F3F0X83Q8QA0PtgQnx+RkX15 3pRh1drZltgm3vEKNLa7Ih2FZyrrq6W51c0th5qZylaTlCkTKg m5I0JbUm2y4B27YzQ5vEDs5SkTKXeGW5NCpIKTlZSCeDt78oHK CTrtgQpWyxLsJUlhptoKUVKCEgXJ2k2jLEvLy6VBhltoK1ORIF 4g1Xm68yKk1Luzq2lTDbzDqEk5EcLkW0NL2sAr2KVyROJlsvSb jSHFNFaCkLRtSSLXHSIELDErKsZ+Al2W8+qsiAM3HraMNScm0p KmpZlsovlKWwCL7be3jiKUd2qKomIJp6YnS8zMTjcqlYNygE8E Ui1zpsPHfjjbg+aqTsyE1J2at4ok3DwiVAcMeE4Xb/e0RccWkCFKZiXl5kBMwy26Em4C0hVjy6xhyXllS4l1sNFkWsgo GUW2aRGdzybqUxTJc1ZUwZxTSioOJUNM396+gVyW4occXPzqKU 6imrWicKStspGvmjNbUcdgPYTbWBCdFykqtlLLkuytpFsqCgFI tssI9JZl0McChptLRuMgSLa9ERut1GfmZOhzNKS8hc2/dba0KTZJYcIDg2pAWEA7LG0KKx4czP0mUl33VpWlxLqiSAqyRY qI2Hj9sCE+y7LLDQaYbQ22kealCQAPYBGt2Sk3SouyrDhUQVZm wbkbD7oYJ6am5DFVPbcfm3ZFFMfU+QgqC3EqaCSbD4RHCWA26w rTMTCsXBoKfEqqQz5SDlDmf9bcUCE7lhjOtfBozLFlHKLkdMeH pOTecDr0sw4sCwUtsEge2GLDbk1NU1hqffnmqmthzwkZVBLa8w BtcWFj8HlGouNY90czC26m89MzBDbzzbaVE2KNMpF9vHrAhSG4 GkJ1SMipstqlJdSFHMUlsWJve9rbbxG5ebqRp+GFvrmA062DUH MpzBfA3AXxgZ736QBGxsVaawrLIVOvyU8txQbdKbK0Uot50kf3 gE5gbbTsgQpGGJbhxMcC3w1svCZRmtyX22jLbDDYCW2kIAJICU gAcsMCpqqTGGUzIb8Xz/CpzNPlRQFBYCklSbkJNj5w4jeHaguPu0iUcmW1tPLZSpxClZil RGoJsL69AgQt7clJtPl9uVYQ6SSVpbAUSdpvG+CCBCIS1j0ROf IL7JhVCWseiJz5BfZMCEUf0RJ/II7IhVCWj+iJP5BHZEKoEIggggQiMWF7xmCBCLDkEGkENmJ5aa m6QtiT1cLrSlJvbOhLiStGunnJCk++BCcvNPJBdJFtIiczSZ1y jYkl2pcJROA+BS+ZICTwKU322TdYJ/GH6kSDcjLuZEIQp1fCOZUBIJsBsGmwAe6BCXadEHmkX0iNTFOm l4iqE3MSnhku8zLplbuAcEpJUV6E+bqUm4226AI3ytNX/AEtqc87Kp8GmZNhpCjbzlJU7n027FI27bdECE/C0GhiOYVorlMlX2JppDiWFLZlFWClKYzFSbnl87KR/hvxw1z1Bn3MLYdkm5JPDyc7KuzKMydEIUC5rfW9vfAhTfTog83 ohgrMpNT79Ge8By+DVAuOhRSSlsIcSDt4yUmwv+EJnabMuYsFR cpqCwyUhgpKbrWoALdWb3slIypT+8eMQIUo83ogGUckRxcpVhi 9mqIzmTU2uWdY0Fk6KS4fO1IUFDQbF9EeZSgtM4vmZ4SSUS/g7amnbi/DcI8pZ231Dg9vugQpL5vRALdEQxui1ZGHarKsthh9+qqmEALH9 Yxw4UU3Gy6ARbptCuWpM14PiBt5hPgs6u8pK5gQgcElJ6E3WCb D27SYEKUeb0Rmw5IYcK0qapbkyzMLDzaSlEq8r+1LWpCVnjKb5 b8YAh+gQiw5IAAIIIEIggggQiEtY9ETnyC+yYVQlrHoic+QX2T AhFH9ESfyCOyIVQlo/oiT+QR2RCkm0CFmC8NNTrCGHvBJRoTU0U5ijOEpbHEVniB4rAk 8lrkICag+n/iam5ZQIUhhAbSb8h1WPcqHBhcmOka3OpLccsEV/SqzR11eYpFMxDN+Ht3Lja5pb5sNtuFzDTjtD+zVpyTUVT6Uvyt/7dpNlNj/EnjHSn6NLwBlxcZUF4BscikMEeGnUOtpcbUFIUAUqBuCDxiPcN T1jKOSA2tHl1xDSFLcUEpSLkk2AHKYr/EmPHxMKlqJLgoSogzTySUq4vMTxj/EdOg7YQkBISBnVg+bx2jOm28cQbpu6turIqUw0a9UKSpl9ITLt obQS3mN1hSQMydU8ul7nSJ3uMbrmJ5ymKlKriVup1Rp1Q8Hfl0 lXBgAg3SkFW3aCdoiBlQ1zsVX5sHywxb7nHyXUgAjNhyRFcF4y ka+BLuNLk57LcsuE+eBtKCQLj3AxKQbi8WFQBBzLNhBYQQkqM+ zJJSFhbjrhyttIF1rPIB+p2DaYEqV2EGnRDUhmqTAK5mcEmCbp alkJUUjpUoEE+wC3TtgRRWEvmYROVNLvKZ51SR/AVFH4QXQnSwMACeIQ1rRVZTKtp8VBsfCbcSlDh6QoWTfoIHtEK 6dOsTrHCsFVgcqkqTlUg8hB1B6DAhKrQRi8BNhAhZguOWGGrV1 SJhclTm0vTCdFrXfg2jyG3wlafBB9pFxeHY4xfJYclpVWJsRTD An3QxKy8sgocec5EBsZ/aSqw4yIa54blKc1hcbBWfBEKpanm5Rt6Rq1Q4NfnXedL1+g8Jc j3EQ6SNddYcS1VEoKFKypmWQQjozg/A9tyPZcCBrwRcILC02KkMJax6InPkF9kwpSoKFxCaseiJz5BfZ MOTUUf0RJ/II7IjTiCeVIU5bzSA4+ohDKTsKybC/IOM9AMbqP6Ik/kEdkQy4tdUanTJO2ig7MX6UBKQP/AMt/dCtFyAmuNhdIWlMSEsVPvg3JW444fhqO1R6THtipy7kn4SgOFo k2PBKJNja4Ta52RqkqbKMPuTCQ4t5y11OLK7dAvs90V7jXdC/o9ildEXSanMzNwUcGgZFpOt85Nhx7RD55XRtu4gBQRwPncGQNL nH+5k/tGTTiVM7h/DslOzpQgOzLJbbUhtRIJVqCdnITEpl6hwTKnalJzEoEglainOk DpKb2inKEimUnHZ3SZ+Sm6e9NNeDzKGJkLbdSQAnOmwzWtoeUD bF8yzzbzKHkKC21pCkkahQI0MRx3c3Gjdk1KXen053upFzrCb8 MVGUMyWZB1bkhMKVwJy2S26NVIF+JQuocWiugRKDsiN1R1uUak 1tthIbnWEoSnQDO4Gzs6FmJGrZCkEfezp+M0/dzKt92XEEvKyi6a9UfAJdDYemnUk5lDXK2kAG97EkezbcxV1Hq MhiCXQul4ofcKh/YlaUuDoKDqD7osqfqixWqktUsy6TNuJzLTcgIOQAe5P6xAt0TB 1LxUTOy7Qo9XAGWclLp4SxuA4kGy/btHLxHCnnJkJutemp4nsAeCL8/kqK3c8QKexRL0yl1ZyecpqVcIEKSoodJsQANp4j9EP24dNz1fX Mpqb6WqtLnhJdxbOobVoqx0I1tp0xP9zjc4odAmahUcQ0yUrFQ nWyyQoAtIaJuRlKdVE6k+7lJiOJKTT9zXdMo9Yw9JFFGqDikzE k64V8HawUEqOtrLBF72IPEIvy19O+nDGs9oc6WKjlEjomyewcu TnKnqaXWGZlqaTXJxD7Sw42pATZKgbg2Ii/MHVgVyhMThAS8P6t9H/K4NvuO0dBEQAu4eAulg5jtDjVx+sSjc7mZZ1+osygbS0kNLshJ ABUFA9kQyllu4i91RlhLG3spc84ltsuKNkpFyeQQ1UfI+4qoTK k+EvpzIRfVpo2KU9BNgTyn2CPOMlMpw9MomnODlnihh9efJlbc WlCjm4vNUdY5IxkqX/pDVp2m49dl5hOZtM8hanC6jWwXe19NNLgECFra4UpbcXupqGhd V49gfZF8jScvQbZtKujd/wAUTdLao89QsSmXSVKK2JZZJeTcWIy3ueIDS9zt4muY3cDQpiV lK66w0vKnhELUnhUKUEn+sy3GVNzcgJJIGzZFZT9DxPWcNNt0y qUunB1ICFhJdccsnzrKsCi9tQNNvSYqPFVIxJQ3jT6zTgtpKkp S+HsjTiNpSDpcnjJBtyRkw1Ekshc11iea6dHgmYAvlya1fzm+B x8xiZ1lVEoTtIShTynkOKWUosbWIVqRYGxAO0abYmm4tulVjFl QnJ2flGEssNIU/MMS62kLbURqoKv5yL3zA2tn26EcmULDuJ8XPS4RI+D0mVculLL pQgD95dydBs2DojpbcsxzQaTX5nD862AJ2XDLSWbKSs62TbT+7 x+zlEW46p7JGse5W20hZSPD2AnmPOuj0bIasUzrsrIpZl1hD8y rg0LP9wWJUodIA06SIVUJ8zNDkJhSVJLss2shW0XSDrEaxalT2 I2wctpeUHBnjHCLOb+Wj6I2HGwWI0XK0spYl2QyyLJToANSfp2 mKV3bqfPVvdAw3PyknJzctT5d3gn/AAoFSXlqSCnJxDKn4XTyiLTxMXWMN1B1pRDvg6w2RtzlJA/EiEGFMOpqFOUl+aQ24ysBgJGxASAQrpzX91oyK+aQ/YxC5IP0Wzg6KNv28hsAU7YWZXT6BJybyEJW23qlBOUEm9h0aw8 iYaU2UONoUkggpULgjphrl5ZUhVU0998OqMuHNNg84j/Iw5JaQNdsWKSQGINtYjIqlWw76XXuDlS/Cc4UKdpTrgVwKc8uTtLV7ZenKbD2FN9bkvFY9ETnyC+yYjsgEJ rki6E2VmW3cD+6UEkfSlP0RIqx6InPkF9kxfabhUnCxRR/REn8gjsiGzFbaELkZ5egae4JSuRLgtb3qCIc6P6Ik/kEdkR7qEs1OSjsq+gLadQULSeMEWMPabG6Y4XFlX26HiJWGsPO zsq1wr1wLgg8GD/esdvsilK7UJtZmqlNlGbLZKyq6lE8ZJ/Tjif7olArqBMM1KoyypXhM6C4lSVOtjYEgAgqHGLjZfkit6zLz c4oNKadTLM3DYUALnZmOvENg98c5hSaWSX2xYcy9O3H0tLHTgs sTfKfBTWTmqZiHBFNlHH1PLl0S6lBCrKChYKv0aquOjoi6Kaw1 K0+Xl2klKENhIF76WihtyTCs+3KVebYeQt5pLZl23b5b6lSTbl A06YuWjViXew9KTrkw25wqQBwRzZlXtlTxk7RblEaOCXSW9vMR cLlt1cMMc7mxG9jtypznAh6dkZQlJK30ulO05W/OzdACggX6Ryw/nZDTRJJ9KnJ6cSBMPABLeh4FA1Cb8Zvck8tttgYd403G5uuYY2 wVYYjYRI4hn21qSlLjgfRmIHmrGv5guG1x6Xy3LiB/EIn+NKKalLtzUslJnJYHIDoHEm10E9NhY8oiCpbbUVJyFC0KyL QtNlIVyEcRjArIzG8utkK2KVwkba+VN0zOSMuCXZlvTiCgT9EQ 3dTpMti/BM1LU+YKZ2UPhUsbEAuIB82/wDiBUOi9+KJ5M06WeN3mG18V1JBhCaJItlXBNqbKhqULIisJmD OFbDXtcHA5kybm9dlsS4LptSS4lbxYSiYAABS4kWVccWoJ9hEW xuWSwRIz04lNkvPhCTxKCBYkfxFQ9oMVbhzc1kHq42ihCYklIX mfW1lyNA63NxtPEkbfZci/adKMyUizKMIyNtICEi/EI0qBjnfaEWVPCLowcWM3vnSLFck7P4fnZZgJLymiWQo6cINU3 t/iAjkLdGwJixM4tyTw1NTLDrCA0ZOVLiVJSnRQKQdu09JjtIjTZ EaUmYoFRUcrjlKmnSoqU75skbai1vgKPTYEnYLRPU0YnIdexCt 4B3QT4Hc8xNBxhzrkvB39PKPQRIVLDa2Zdkf1V1pDwQdgW0bFB Fz0622bXWlYwpc9QZmWrKmm2+EJBmGFFCrX05LgjiJNje0X5iL clw3UsRIrTEoJeYmJgLnlpmXUFxISbZQDlzZst7jZmHHCeR3La L/AEjWh2nVFmmSTKEy96gHGptSrlRUgjMCkgAEmxvHO1OBquZxGS 17ixtbatCPDlLiDHBuuZXd0g1BvxbhejzXCaptwRCDYaEHZ7Pd tiwNwLc/rNPemsV1Vrg85Nmivzi7bKhsAi4N1AagbY6GdpVGw1T1ztMoLa lIUnMmWQlKspIClEqIFki6jrsBjbS5NibnDOS0o1LSXCl9IQ2l PhTygP6422jkJ2nXiSY1abBZYQ558deTYsypwyXtLGDPzlPMgy JaQl5cWs02lA9wtEWxskytVlJ5WUMPNFh1ZV8FSSVIFuQguXPQ OWJeBCDEFKYrFKekJgEJcHmqG1ChqFD2GNhwuLLEabG6543Ucb rwni2msqHhUlVUFbiHCUpQEZQMhG3XWx2e+LL3O6vIVqVXP05X 9WpZCkKRYpPH7R0xW+63uYT+KaK5SS7JStblVcLJTDynEpHnAF QIvdKhtGtjbYYXYbwJVqXQGqLMPSc3LJQAvhHybq2qIsgFOt7G 5MYdS8QEOay5OddfBJR1NC2N3syDn5iNHSp7jFxctVG6jKFtx6 XTZxrMMy2yL6Dj49I0s4woKpRD6p5tClEAtk+eDyFO0e+IO9gW ZYQtuVkWXwTqHZsuD2WUYi2EtymuyGJPDp4SS0KeUZWRbJcUsX uAeJIGmtzbohsExfI4saW36cye2goXQnfp/ujJkyn5Z1f2HplNQrrHgqkOMy7annVpN8pUMqE+8FZ/h6YlFY9ETnyC+yYbMG0FFCpAl1K4WYcOd9y9wVcQTyJGwD37SY cqx6JnOrr7JjcY0huVce8guyLNH9ESfyCOyIVGIbKY+wlJyrMn M1plt9hCW3EFCrpUkWI2cojb5R8F8/MfUX3RbFLORcMPcVnnCVGDYyt7wpHUZCTqEq5Kzsu1MMOCy23E hSVe4xAqruSUJ8LNPmX5Fah5oyhxKf0V+aHryj4L5+Y+ovug8o +C+fmPqL7oZJg+WQWdGT9Cp6bD8NM7GhqA3Q4JFhHA07QpZ2Xc rqZlLigrMiTyL02XJWoH6Ik1MosnIul8Z3pg7XnTdQHIOJI6AB DL5R8F8/MfUX3QeUfBfPzH1F90PZRTsaGtjNh8iopsMUs8hkkmaXHOcYKW jZYRmIl5R8F8/MfUX3QeUfBnPzH1F90LwSo6h7imek6L4rf3D+VLCLw11igU6pq Dr7am302yvNHKsdF+MdBuIZ/KPgvn5j6iu6MeUfBfPzH1F90NdRTuFjGe4pRhWjBuJm/uH8rVOYNnCoeA1lDaePwiU4Q/lWj9I2yuCmigCoVF58/30spDKVfiVD3Kg8o2C+fmPqL7oz5R8F8/MfUX3RCMEuBvvR7ipfTlPa2/t/cFJJCRlJGXSxJsIYaTsSgWF+XpMKRpER8o+C+fmPqL7oz5R8Gc/MfUX3ROKOcf8Z7iofSlH8Vv7h/KlseVoStJSoAgixBG0RFPKPgvn5j6i+6Dyj4L5+Y+ovuheCVHU PcUek6L4rf3D+U+IpSZZSjITT0qgm5aFlN+5Kr5fYkgRpRL4h4 a66rTizfUJp6wu3tLpH4Q0+UfBfPzH1F90Y8o+C+fmPqL7oOCV HUPcUek6L4rf3D+U++KW3XUuzsw9OFPwUOWDY/gAAJ6TcjihwSLC0RPyj4L5+Y+ovug8o+C+fmPqL7oOCVHUPcUe k6L4rf3D+VLYIiXlHwXz8x9RfdB5R8Gc/MfUX3QcEqOoe4o9J0XxW/uH8qQ1SmSNSZLU6wHU/3TchSTypUNUnpBvDFNYUWGimRqRbPF4QyHQB7ikn6Y1eUfBfPz H1F90Z8o+C+fmPqL7oY6gmdnjPcU5uFqRuaZv7h/KJbCc0QTPVcKN9DLS/BW+std4faTRpCmJPgrauEV8N1aita/ao6+7YOKGLyj4L5+Y+ovug8o+DOfmPqK7oRuD5W5oz3FDsL0rs 8zf3BS0C0Jax6InPkF9kxHPKPgvn5j6i+6NU3j7CU5KvSctWmX H30FttASq6lKFgNnGTDzSzgXLD3FI3CVGTYSt7wudMR+sNS627 2zDfDhiP1hqXW3e2Yb49Lpx9k3QNi8FrD/AJEmk7UQQQRNZVroggggsi6IIIzaBF0QQjnn3mX2EtgZF3zki9 tnedI0N1F9yaDSZRaUJmSytar/AAQlRzDTlTb3xCZWh1irbaSRzMcZk5WjMNqqg+icLKpbOhT/AASSm+gsjzibcqj9HHGyWnluUozS2v69LQWtrUG9r22QomY5D6 OVgB6fFLoIbV1F5ta21yZzpSTos2PwNht/jP1TG1ybeLMo4hpKeGXZYVfzRlUf1AHvhN+ZzJ3AZgRfn+aW2g hr8aTHgqXjTXL+Dh4pC7nUE5dmp0F9NLiFMxNrTTJh9pq8w00V cF8LzrXA02wolYU11HK21+c2zpXaCEkrOrefS0ZYpBF85VodVD Tl+CD/ABCNfjBzhi34Iu3ClAVfaLpF/wASbcgMIJWEXRwOXGxefSl9tLwQ3qqDiW0uKYISQokC5Itbbpp t91o9U+eXM8Gp5oscKy2sNqBzJUoKJSTyiw5IBMwmyHUUrWFx2 pbBGTGImVS5RBBBBZF0QQQQIuiHDDnrDTdv7W12xDfDhhz1hpv W2u2IhqOKdoOxWaLlMfaG1GI/WGpdbd7ZhvhwxH6w1LrbvbMN8FPxTdA2IreUSdo7UQQQRMqyIz GIyIELAjBUkLCMwuoEgdHH+o+kQgmaUl+adfVNOjhCg5RawyqS r3/B/Ex7kaa3KvodDzrhS0G7rN9LJH+gacpMQY8l/uq6IoMW+Pl6LJUh5pSFLS4koQSFEKFgRtvHpDiVBSULBykJIvs Nr2PuMIG6Q0M4D7oCgoEcXnFZ/wBZ9thyR6VTEqmlP8O6FLcC1AGwvZsf7Y16TBjyX+7rTjFTfEP cl+3/ADgIF+LWElOkG5FTi0OuuBZ+Co3y68XJplH8I47xplqPLscHZ1 9SkZhnKySQQBrcnXQH2iHYz7A21pm9w3IxzbQnDOnMlskZiLgd EBWAoAqFybanbCPxegkHh3MwFgfek7P4R+Ma00pIykTD1wkJKr gEgJUnb7FfSBDceS/3dafvVN8TUnEkccYQpKkBxtQIIvcHbyGEQpqEraXw7h4Mk+26g r3bPxjc3JoQ9Muh1weEJSkgHRFhbzeTi6IUOf0a1G6OEDI+/wBP7pW111poJ4RxCL2AuQLkmw/UD3xsVc2ub+2GdVBYUlpJmHTwdrXAN7OIX+qAPeY2opLaAP691 RS2hF1qJuE24tmthf3w3Hkv93WpDFTW4w30JyOm28YJSleRSgF 2zWO23LCSap7Uw4lRUpCW2VtJCRszW19ot+JjW7TEuElTzg1Pw TbavNxfRDnOkByNTGxw2yv1JwUQEkkgBIub6WEYbUlxAWhQUk7 CDcQjbpzaRNDhXCmYQEFJN8oAtpfo/wC9t9ZpTZUSZh6xUk5b+boUG1uT+r92ZXLBjSZPZSiKny3fqTi YxGdBoIxEypm18iIIIIEiIcMOesNN6212xDfDhhz1hpvW2u2Ih qOKdoOxWaLlMfaG1GI/WGpdbd7ZhvhwxH6w1LrbvbMN8FPxTdA2IreUSdo7UQQQRMqyII IIELMEYggQkc/PKlZhpvgC4laScwOw5kJ102ecSTyAwlarWZQDkstvO4hCEr0UA pKTci2hBVa3QeSHcQRC5jycjlcjnga0B0dz03KaXqo+zTW5vgA tRdcQpA081OexHtyj6Y9O1YNpfIlnMrJyglQ87zb6ae4csOl4P ZAWP5nJd/g549abH6i+kryNJUErKb3I40i35j9EbHqiG5FmZLSiXf7t9RoT ydELyNCLbdsFuOAMeL+0lM8DrfZ60zzlZcaZmS3KlSmwQjzrpO qxrp/g/EcsLKhOuyy2g3KrfDnGg7LEDXTkN/cYWcgggxJAMrkhnhuLR602uVF3MQlnIEuls5je9gri4tUj2giP E7U3peny034OpefVxKRr/ZqV5vTcAe02h1ueUwHUawmI/rJeEQ5Ps9abjU1XP/DrSkOLQMxGuUK4uL4P4iPDVWDr0u2WClTylJOZwaWI47a6GHTW MZU3BKRcCwNoXEf1km/U+X7PWs/rBBGImVNEEEECREEEECEQ4Yc9Yab1trtiG+HDDnrDTettdsRDU cU7Qdis0XKY+0NqMR+sNS6272zDfDhiP1hqXW3e2Yb4Kfim6Bs RW8ok7R2ogggiZVlmMnYBbWMQyUqamXMYVuWW+4phhqXU0gnRJ WFlR/ARG+QMLR0nwurMMBlY91/ui+sDxT37oOPZEcpk7OVNmuPl9bBlJp2XYSg2CciU6kf3rknbx Rrn6tNTOApasNlctMPIYWcvFmWkEAcYNzaIOFtIuBzX+gVz0U8 ODbjKQD8iRcKTkEbQYLW/6RHkTswcfIkA66JYUwultX/PwgTf6IMRzFRp08Kqw847JSyUmblbZszZKgVp48ybA+y8LwsYh dbMbJBgxxkEeMLkXHgNKkJgA0uIQYfmRN03wlL3DtreeyLvcFA cUE29wEJcTTD7D1JDDy2uGn0NOZT8JJSokfSBD3zhse+cygZRl 1QYL5RfUnkQEWjIuNmgiFLqVQbqrqRNuIabrKJcqc/sw0UAlB6STp0mEnqBDa4zp9DQGrLg02xRdTQggXg5dsNmKpt+U oUy5JvNtTRQUsKcVYBVidvuMZk3/HNEkZ2VmVNImEtvKU2dbWBKejjEOMwD8QZ86jbRuMQlJs0myci LQW44j+FFTc0l6Zcnn18DPTDRQo+aUBRCR7RYQnbmpl3E9ZkFz M5wSDLpY4I24ErSSTe1tvLeIeFDFa62dWxgsmV8YePZFzn6QPG 6lAvyGA2hmxM3Pow8t+SnFImpVsO6aJdCdVJPtAPshXRJnw6nt 1JKnODnEh5tCj8BCgCkfRr7SYmE32mJbmuqrqW0G/Y2S9v7pS6DW1rQx40eqEtTkTVNcWl1hXDKQm1nUpBUpB9oBhFM VdybxPQkyU0RT5pt1SgkfDIbSsa9GYfjEclU2N2IRlya1PBg18 0Qla4Wy/Swvr5lKrX2W+mMEEbYZ5tbzmLJWV8IeSwuSdcUhKrAqStsA/QoxjDk5MPTtXkJlwvGRmg224RqUKQlYB5SM1r9EKKgF+Jbnso3 0BbDvgdzA2+RNtqeIIIIsrPRDhhz1hpvW2u2Ib4cMOesNN6212 xENRxTtB2KzRcpj7Q2oxH6w1LrbvbMN8OGI/WGpdbd7Zhvgp+KboGxFbyiTtHaiCCCJlWQbEWPHCGk0iUprrzz CnVOPIbQpTisxKWwQkfiYXi8FoY5jSQSMymZNIxjmNOQ5/mkDlKliZrg1uNInDeYQggBZtlJ5QSBY2Ij1UKZKztMFOUlTUsM gCW7CwSQQBp0CFT7QdbyEqGoP/fLGnwRXCBaZp8WUpVr6ai1vYNoERujaL2bnVpk8hsXPIIy5lrF MlzWU1crcMyljwfaMpRe+z2wpDB4ZxZWpWdITlIFrC/eY0JkLPJe8JeK0pUnbtuEj/TeMokymWLPhcwokAFZV52gA/6+0wjW2zNQ+TGsd8vktmWaZIS1NkUScmjIw2VFCb/Buom3s1jVNUqWmJ5qceLpW04haU5/NzJCgk2/jPt47xt8DTwPBhxYF1nMDr5xvf3RkyiVy6mVuLWDxk3I5Lcn/SFLbgNLciRspDzIJDc5zZbmGg0gp4Rxy61Kuo3tc7PYL6Q2PUC RfYm2nC8pMzMJmV+cLhxJSQRp/hELUyhDucvuqN9AeIebyfu/iY1GQcy2E9NbLXKhcjNm/wCnshr2hwsW3T2SmMlzZLX+SUOshyYQ8pa7oCgALWueO1tsaKP TGKTI+Byq3CyFqWkLIOUqJJ91zHt6SS6tpRWpCm1qWCn/ABG5vGPA7Jt4Q/ssDm1GhF/x/AQuL7WNi5U0SexiY+Tot0XssUuns05p1tlTig66p5WYj4SjdR0 4rmNHilluanZ5uZeZcnAnhVDKLBIsm2mlgY3qkQp5LpmHsyc3H yqB/DLYWj34GngVtLW44FEElSiT9N7j29MIYxa2LmzJzZyH4++ZXZ8 mdefB5ddONODt2+B4M+cCrLa1/o440ykk1JJkpZibWhiRa4ItlwG6QkBOYdAA1742vU5p5taHFrO dGS99UiwB16bCND1IZdcm1uPOEzbRac4hYpSLjkPm398Nc12fF 1p7JIwCN8Njlzc/9JS1xlDy2nM58y5AFrG4tDezh+nS7lOVLhbQpwWmXQk6AL+Ffl haJRQYZZ8Jes1bXjUBsBgZlS0+l0vOrsgoso6akH/KHlgcfaaomSujaQyT6Wz5xsK8PyCHKo3UQ8628hlTSctrBKikn aDxpEZpshLU9t1MulRU86p11azdS1naT/3sAhVb6ICLQ8RsDr2yqu6omdHiE5P4RGIIIlVdEOGHPWGm9ba7 Yhvhww56w03rbXbEQ1HFO0HYrNFymPtDajEfrDUutu9sw3w4Yj 9Yal1t3tmG+Cn4pugbEVvKJO0dqIIIImVZZFiNgPQYgmEn30TF HdefcSiYenWSc5Vwqg4opCgdlkpVY+7SJ0QCLGEbVKp7bTLTcq hKWXS62LnzFnaR06n6YqVED5Htc05vJatDWxQRPjeL42rIRtKQ NqWMdvt3OQU5CgL6X4RQJ9ugF4S0oipUmqzVRecYcTMvt8KFkG XS2ohOXksAD0w/plJYTqp4N2mVI4MuXNynkjw9T5J0uFyXQeFN3BxL/eGw++Gmnfe9+c5NOZPbXRAWsQbNF+fJn701VlS04woaEeclTMy VgrsFWDdieW1zb2x7wiVldXK73RUnEgZr5QEpskdGuzph1dk5Z 6bZm3Wgp9kENLuQUg2vb22EeWJGUYS8llrIH1FbllHzlHafbCi B4kxr8/gAiSuidTiK2WwF/wD2J2FM1DqM0vFFQkJong3mUTUpcHRN8hSL+xJ9qjDTidx9qfr My0640iWEm7wiFkKaGdWYgbDcDURLvAJTwhmYLN3WUlDasxulJ tcfgPogcp0i45MuOS6FqmkZH81yHEjYD9J+mIpKZ5jxS7nOsfy p4cIQNn3xrOYAi3QRl7h3pqxMsmq4fCVKCHZ0pWAdFDglmx5Rc DljNMefaxjUqagrVJplmnwCokNuKKgQL7AQAbd8Or8hJPeD8Kw F+Dm7JKjdBtbT3X+mPcvLS8uXCy0lCnFZlq41HpO06csP3s75j X576rKLhDeD73iE5CM3PjXv3ZE041lpt6lIdpzi25xhzhmcptn KEqVkPKDa1jpDeif8aVygVFh9ZlXw4EoB802aKjflIJtrsyxKH WUOLbWsEls3RrsPLGhNNkUuS7iZZAVLX4G1xkvtt9MNlixpMZr ujUpKaqEcAY+MkjGy26R/8PemjGdRm6cmUm5a/AyryHJsAE3bKshH0FSvakQrxPJLn5aWZl5tyVfLpLTyDqlQbUR ccYuBcccL35OWmG3mnm+EbfTkdSpRIUNRb2WJj2JZhIZSEEBg3 b84+bpb9CREm9OeXXOQ2/vcoG1TImxlrbObfLbPceBv9E0YXnzUUzJmWeCnGClmabI0Cxe5 HKCLEdBholFv0h+Uk5p12YkKktlcu4slRZeJTmbJ25VC5HvETA NNpcccSgJW4AFqGhVbQR4ErLBhtgMgtNFKm0k3ylOoIvyWEI6m eWjLlCczCMTZHHF9l1snRk5tB1Junj/5upqRfIZSZUobAVJUzb6Ln2XMNdYVMUiqTVabW69IB0Mz0v8AC SlGRBDqRxZSSTbaCTxRJHJVhc43Nqbu+2kpQu5ukG1x7DYfQI9 BhocMMgPDG7l9c2luPohXU7nXy89wkhwhHHi3FwG2I6cpOzMel MEy+4qsYfp/CFMo+y464kacKpKE2SfpKum0ONFel1TdRlmBMJ8HfCVpcN0pUU JVZGp0sQffCx2VlXGmm1MpytW4PlRYW0O0aRmWlZeWDnAMpQXF Zlq2larWuTxmFZC9r7n+5LJk1XDJCWgEG1vrjXufpkW2CCCLay kQ4Yc9Yab1trtiG+HDDnrDTettdsRDUcU7Qdis0XKY+0NqMR+s NS6272zDfF2uUikuuKccpcktayVKUphJJJ2km0efEtG5pkPuyO 6MqHCeLG0YvMOfyXRVOAMaZ7t8zk83z0qlIIuvxLRuaZD7sjug 8S0bmmQ+7I7ok9K/k1+Sg9Xv1NXmqUgi6/EtG5pkPuyO6DxLRuaZD7sjug9K/k1+SPV79TV5qlYIurxLRuaZD7sjug8S0bmmQ+7I7oPSv5Nfkj1 e/U1eapSCLr8S0bmmQ+7I7oPEtG5pkPuyO6D0r+TX5I9Xv1NXmqU jMXV4lo3NMh92R3QeJaNzTIfdkd0I7CYcLFmvyT2YCdGbtlt9P NUrpBpF1eJaNzTIfdkd0HiWjc0yH3ZHdEPC4fhDv8la9HVJ/wCc93mqV0g0i6vEtG5pkPuyO6DxLRuaZD7sjug4XD8If36JPRt T8c93mqV0gMXV4lo3NMh92R3QeJaNzTIfdkd0SMwi1n3WW+vko JMCSSm75b/TzVKxiLr8S0bmmQ+7I7oPEtG5pkPuyO6H+lfya/JRer36mrzVKQRdfiWjc0yH3ZHdB4lo3NMh92R3Qelfya/JHq9+pq81SkEXX4lo3NMh92R3QeJaNzTIfdkd0HpX8mvyR6vfq avNUpBF1+JaNzTIfdkd0HiWjc0yH3ZHdB6V/Jr8ker36mrzVKQ4Yc9Yab1trtiLb8S0bmmQ+7I7o9N0iktOJcb pckhaCFJUlhIII2EG0RzYTvG4YvMefyU9LgDFmY7fMxHN89K//9k=