View Full Version : "The Ancestral Sources of Social Joy and Laughter"

11-01-14, 01:50 PM
PLAYful Dreamlike Circuits
of the Brain

The Ancestral Sources of
Social Joy and Laughter

What daring it takes
to play as ravines sweep down,
to play as a river flows.

-Boris Pasternak, "Bacchanalia," translated by Anesa Milner for Mikhail Epstein (1993)

IN HIS QUEST TO BE free, Boris Pasternak, the great Russian novelist and poet (1890-1960; winner of the Noble Prize for Literature, 1958), wrote the above lines about deep play in "Bacchanalia."

The philosopher Mikhail Epstein (1993) proceeded to reflect that "Pasternak's lines. . . convey the play of nature, that is the ideal of what culture might do--to play, not as chess players but as a river plays."

All mammalian youngsters discover within their minds, in Epstein's words, "a wild, naughty, rambunctious creature" resonant with the spontaneity of "all nature--like a mischievous child." (*1)

Ask children what they enjoy more than anything else.

Their almost invariable answer is "to play!"

Playful activities, in their many forms, bring all young mammals great joy.

And at the earliest ages, physical roughhousing--also known as rough-and-tumble play--is the most fun of all, as indicated by the abundant laughter that accompanies such activities, almost equally in boys and girls (figure 10.1). [Scott and Panksepp, 2003]

Psychologists have written a great deal about play, but they do not know how many primary-process PLAY systems exist.

It could be a single one--the maturing human mind, however, extends to the farthest reaches of our imaginations in the stratosphere of our higher mental apparatus, to the point where we can tickle each other with jokes most clever and outrageous.

We will not focus on those higher positive psychological issues of the human mental apparatus, which have been explored in various works on positive psychology (e.g., Sheldon et al., 2011).

Physical playfulness is a birthright of every young mammal and perhaps of many other animals as well.

Two recent books and two that are somewhat older provide excellent summaries of playfulness across species, much more than could be summarized in this short chapter (Aldis, 1975; Burghart, 2005; Fagen, 1981; Pellis & Pellis, 2009).

There is also a classic monograph about the play behavior of rats, still well worth reading (Groos, 1898), as well as a follow-up on human play (Groos, 1901).

It is now certain that a genetically determined PLAY network that mediates positive affect exists in mammalian brains (Burgdorf et al., 2007; Panksepp, 1998a), although many details remain to be scientifically analyzed.

So far most of the neuroscience research has been done with laboratory rats, so we cannot be sure how well these lessons translate to humans.

Indeed, we know almost nothing about primary-process rough-and-tumble play (henceforth called the PLAY system) in humans, although there is some relevant work on laughter.

But because the PLAY system is concentrated in the subcortical brain regions, just like all the other basic emotional systems, we can anticipate that many general principles, especially about the neuroanatomies, neurochemistries, and raw affects (social joy), will translate across all mammalian species.

How we translate playfulness into humor within our tertiary-process networks of our minds, will not.

It is hard to define play, but you know it when you see it.

Perhaps the best general definition has recently been suggested by Gordon Burghardt (2005), consisting of five criteria:

(1) The adaptive functions of play are not fully evident at the time play occurs;

(2) play is a spontaneous activity, done for its own sake, because it is fun (pleasurable);

(3) play is an exaggerated and incomplete form of adult activities;

(4) play exhibits many repetitive activities, done with abundant variations, unlike serious behaviors that are not as flexible; and

(5) animals must be well fed, comfortable, and healthy for play to occur, and all stressors reduce play.

Burghardt (2005, p. 82) sought to put all these qualities into a single sentence:

"Play is repeated, incompletely functional behavior differing from more serious versions structurally, contextually, or ontogenetically, and initiated voluntarily when the animal is in a relaxed or low-stress setting" [emphasis in original].

As one can see, dynamic social interactions was not included as a criterion, allowing Burghardt to include exploratory fun under the play concept, which may be largely due to animals using their SEEKING system for personal fun.

However, for us, it is the social form of play, often taking the form of "play fighting" that is the most dramatic and joyous form of play, with dedicated brain systems, that also incorporates the exploratory-SEEKING urges into its domain.

Also, for us, primary-process PLAY has to be partly defined by social neural circuits, in addition to SEEKING, that generate the dynamic quality of young animals playing with each other.

One of our original descriptions of social playfulness was when two juvenile rat pups "are placed together in a non-threatening environment, they rapidly begin to exhibit vigorous fighting:

Animals chase and pounce on each other, sometimes unilaterally, sometimes mutually with rapid role reversals.

They repeatedly poke and nip at each other, often at the nape of the neck but also on the ventral surface when one animal is pinned" (Panksepp et al., 1984, p 466).

This is the kind of play we will focus on here, for it is the one that generates the most fun, as highlighted by the abundant high-frequency laughter-type sounds--50-kHz chirps--that rats emit when spontaneously indulging in this activity or when tickled playfully by a resilient human being (Knutson, Burgdorf et al., 1998; Panksepp & Burgdorf, 2000)

These chirps are intimately linked to the dopaminergic rewards of the SEEKING system (Burgdorf et al., 2007), helping to explain the pleasure of exploratory play, which takes the form of predatory practice (such as when a kitten toys with a ball of yarn).

We now know that predatory behavior, and hence the playful chasing and pouncing form in young animals, is a developmental outgrowth of the SEEKING system (see Chapters 3 and 4).

However, as we will discuss later, this wonderful laughter-type chirping sound can now be used as a direct measure of positive affect in rats (Panksepp & Burgdorf, 2003), which has opened up doors to even understanding the euphoric delights of addictive drugs (Browning, et al., 2011; Burgdorf et al., 2001; Panksepp, Knutson et al., 2002).

Although exploratory object play can be great fun, there is nothing that quite matches the outright euphoria of fully engaged social play, a state that is quite evident to even an untutored eye.

One can observe it almost daily when looking into yard and seeing squirrels leap and chase each other on the grass.

Why does a PLAY urge exist?

It it probably enables the young to learn nonsocial physical skills like hunting, foraging, and so on.

It is also surely important for acquiring many social capacities, especially nascent aggressive, courting, sexual, and in some species, competitive and perhaps even parenting skills.

It may be an essential force for the construction of the many higher functions of our social brains.

Playful activities may help young animals learn to identify individuals with whom they can develop and cooperative relationships and to know who they should avoid.

They surely learn through play when they can dominate social interactions and when they should gracefully disengage, submit or accept defeat.

Play can also have a darker side.

When animals play, they may learn whom they can bully and who can bully them.

In short, the brain's PLAY networks may help stitch individuals into the stratified social fabric that will be the staging ground for their lives, and these networks may also prepare them to handle various unexpected events that life will surely throw their way (Spinka et al., 2001)

The PLAY urge is both robust and fragile.

It is fragile because a great number of environmental manipulations can reduce play--including all events that evoke negative emotional states such as anger, fear, pain, and separation distress; it is especially sensitive to species-typical fear stimuli such as the smell of predators for rats (Panksepp, 1998a, Fig. 1.1; Siviy et al., 2006).

For instance, if a laboratory researcher has a pet cat at home, and he is not careful to change his clothes before going to work, he will have a difficult time studying the play of rats because the odor of cats intrinsically scares rats, and fearful rats simply do not play.

Likewise, rats are scared of well-lit open spaces; they play in safe burrows, away from the attentions of predators.

In addition, hunger is a powerful inhibitor of play (Siviy & Panksepp, 1985), as are may other bodily imbalances, including of course, illness.

This is a general principle: Play only occurs when one is safe, secure and feeling good, which makes play an exceptionally sensitive measure for all things bad.

PLAY, however, is also a robust system:

If young animals are healthy and feeling good, they almost invariably play together when given the chance.

Currently, some of the more boisterous forms of rough-and-tumble play in human children tend to be discouraged by parents.

Few of them consider the developmental fact that deminished opportunities for physical play may have undesirable maturational consequences, such as poorly controlled hyperactive urges that can become so severe as to be pathologized, and are all too often given labels such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Panksepp, 2007b).

Children who exhibit excessive activity become more manageable when given medications such as amphetamines, the same drugs that dramatically reduce playfulness in rats (Panksepp, Burgdorf et al., 2002).

Conversely, in rat models of ADHD, abundant daily play can reduce the symptoms of hyperactivity (Panksepp et al., 2003).

Further study of play in young humans may allow us to help children diagnosed with ADHD by giving them more play opportunities, as opposed to the drugs that dampen the play impulse.

But before we proceed to complex socio-cultural issues, let's examine the evidence that indicates PLAY is an ancestral gift of the mammalian BrainMind.

Panksepp/Biven, "The Archaeology of Mind", Chapter: PLAYful Dreamlike Circuits of the Brain, P 351-355.

i!i i!i i!i

11-01-14, 03:04 PM
I can't find any mention of the word 'dream' other than in the title at the top and bottom.

What's the connection between play and dream ?

11-01-14, 04:00 PM
PLAYful Dreamlike
Associated with creativity, dreams and Extra-sensory perception for the student the theta state is something to learn to go at will.
Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR).

There's really nothing wrong wirth ADDers.
There's everything wrong with society.

11-01-14, 04:16 PM


page 382
( n&f=false)Archaeology of mind.

ie explaiend - see post above.

11-01-14, 04:19 PM
Many have problems with social compliance when their urge to play is thwarted
p 383

Exactly - we're not allowed to dream.

or from previously - let sleeping dogs lie.

11-01-14, 04:28 PM
p 383
'long term daily play diminishes adverse side of ADHD'

ie let us daydream (= distress free state) and we're fine.

11-01-14, 04:31 PM
p 383
'obviously it is important to attend to academic success in the classroom'

No - we the classroom typical Western education is bogus.
We can't pay attention in it - because it's nonsense.

The purpose of education is to allow the individual to tell right from wrong - not to be able to say 'where's the toilet ?' in 500 different languages.

11-01-14, 04:32 PM
So - as long as 'play' in animal is defined as 'daydream' in man

- everything Panksepp writes derived from animal is good.

The key here - is in defining PLAY.

It's nothing to do with rough and tumble or even human beings being physically around other human beings - it's about being in a certain mental daydream state - which is a lovely distress free state which you really just don't want to leave - but are forced to depart in order to talk to the average person in dumbo world who asks you something crazy like if Jesus is Allah then why is Buddha moot ?

The answer to nearly every question human beings ask is - it really isn't important, leave me alone - I want to dream.

11-01-14, 04:37 PM

You asked me what's my pleasure
A movie or a measure?
I'll have a cup of tea and tell you of my dreaming
Dreaming is freeMovies are irritating.
Alcohol makes my mouth hurt.

Will the world just stop talking.

11-01-14, 04:41 PM
She's singin' world shut your mouth, shut your mouth
Put your head back in the clouds and shut your mouth

11-01-14, 04:54 PM
Notice -
he's ALWAYS ( smiling

The point in life is to be happy (

11-01-14, 04:58 PM
How ?
The root of suffering is material world attachment

How to transcend material world attachment ?

Default human reward system (to beat other people)
mind which knows right from wrong (is wise) <- purpose of education
A properly human reward system which no longer hurts other people for kicks

Any idiot can beat another person.
Any team of idiot$ can beat another team of idiot$.

11-01-14, 05:58 PM
"Most people are able to control their 'daydreaming' state and focus on the task at hand.
"This is not the case with children with ADHD.

Nothing that people do in the workplace is of any importance.
There's nothing wrong with being persistent daydream believers.

And it looks as though we're defining distress as the loss of the daydream/default mode network pattern of brain activity.

11-01-14, 06:54 PM

Later in the chapter approx p 374-387, there is some discussion focusing more specifically on dream and REM and PLAY and ADHD and lots of other interesting things involved.

Not sure if you can access the pages on line? But Theta rhythm is discussed more on P 405 in a chapter involving "core self and the mechanisms of affective consciousness".

Prof Damasio also discusses dreaming and daydreaming, in his book "Self Comes To Mind".

I am going review and compare the information, etc, and get back to you, tonight or tomorrow.

Thanks, your insights and interest helps me learn the material better.


11-01-14, 08:50 PM
I can't find any mention of the word 'dream' other than in the title at the top and bottom.

What's the connection between play and dream ?


I am going to have to come back to this question in a week or so.


11-01-14, 09:04 PM
So - as long as 'play' in animal is defined as 'daydream' in man

- everything Panksepp writes derived from animal is good.

The key here - is in defining PLAY.

It's nothing to do with rough and tumble or even human beings being physically around other human beings - it's about being in a certain mental daydream state - which is a lovely distress free state which you really just don't want to leave - but are forced to depart in order to talk to the average person in dumbo world who asks you something crazy like if Jesus is Allah then why is Buddha moot ?

The answer to nearly every question human beings ask is - it really isn't important, leave me alone - I want to dream.


Maybe I am misunderstanding.

Maybe you are focusing more on secondary and tertiary processes and I am focusing on primary processes?

Maybe I am wrong, but I am going to have to disagree.

90% of the adult brain develops during the implicit stage of development before the age of 4*.


11-02-14, 03:39 PM
Page 11 (
Amphetamines have a dramatic effect on REM sleep.


* Brain is active and dreams occur

REM atonia (
an almost complete paralysis of the body,
Relaxation ? daydreaming


Some connection between REM and ADDer daydreaming.

Low frequency EEG - low energy usage - evolutionarily selected because of the 'expense' of feeding the brain - severely compromising survival prospects ?

11-03-14, 07:55 AM

REM -> ESP -> emergence on low GMF

11-03-14, 06:23 PM

It seems likely that PLAY is instrumental in honing a wide range of social and nonsocial skills--it is an experience-expectant process that prepares animals for future challenges.

Data on how this happens are scarce .

But let's be creative.

Might PLAY be linked to the functions of dreaming?

Both play and dreaming seem to be experience-expectant functions of the brain designed to evaluate past events as sources for creative and useful future behaviors.

Perhaps play functions in ways that are complementary to dreaming.

Both may help organize information in the brain in ways that promote higher-order affective responses to future life events.

In other words, maybe both play and dreaming allow animals to test solutions to complex problems that they confront in real life.

If so, we suspect that playfulness should have a bigger role in psychotherapy that it currently does.

But let's first look at the phenomenon of sleep itself.

Neuroscientists now know that mammalian brains contain endogenous daily rhythm generators--circadian clocks that engender periods of wakefulness and sleep throughout the day.

The main circadian clock for sleep is situated in the neurons of the suprachiasmic nuclei (SCN), positioned at the base of the brain just above the optic chiasm, where the optic nerves cross over, providing both cerebral hemispheres with visual information from each eye.

These SCN neurons are especially sensitive to the chemical melatonin and are also otherwise light sensitive.

Melatonin is secreted from the pineal gland and powerfully influences the suprachiasmic nuclei:

When light fades, this promotes sleep in people and in most animals (rats are nocturnal but have higher levels of melatonin after nightfall as well, indicating that darkness drives melatonin production).

The two primary sleep states in mammals are (1) slow wave sleep (SWS, also often called non-REM sleep, or NREM), which is typically dreamless, and (2) rapid eye movement sleep (REM), during which people and animals vividly dream.

While REM sleep and dreaming do have distinct brain mechanisms, the two are usually well coordinated.

A very specific site in the ventrolateral preoptic area has been identified as an important SWS generator, although it is clear that the neocortex also has intrinsic SWS generators--sleep is partly regional in higher parts of the brain (Krueger et al., 2008).

REM sleep is generated by areas quite a bit lower in the brain stem just below the midbrain.

During REM sleep, there is a sustained muscular relaxation, which typically prevents animals from acting out their dreams.

Thus, the big antigravity muscles remain relaxed during REM, generating atonia throughout the body.

But there are also storms of various phasic components during dreaming, as reflected in a variety of small muscular twitches, the most well-studied of which are the rapid eye movements for which this "paradoxical" phase of sleep is named.

When people and animals are in REM sleep, they also move their fingers, lips, noses, toes, various muscles of the middle ear, and so on.

The point is that such peripheral twitches do not result in any coordinated whole-body behavior.

The muscular twitching during REM sleep is reflected in typical EEG readings as enormous spikes of firing, especially within the visual system.

Key brain structures that generate SWS and REM sleep, as well as generators for waking life, lie quite deep in the brain stem.

The SWS mechanisms reside higher in the brain stem, the basic waking mechanisms reside lower down in the brain-stem reticular formation, and the REM generators reside even farther down.

Thus, mammals have an unusual brain arrangement, especially when one considers that higher regions of the brain generally evolved more recently than lower ones.

The most influential mechanisms for generating SWS are situated in higher regions of the brain than the basic neural systems that allow us to be awake.

The executive mechanisms for generating REM, are situated as the lowest, and perhaps most ancient, of the three.

If we accept that structures located lower down in the central nervous system are generally more primitive than those found higher up, somehow we need to make sense of the fact that the major waking mechanisms of mammalian brains evolved more recently that the basic REM-dream generators.

We must take this apparent inversion with a grain of salt, however, because evidence is accumulating that the experiences of dreaming arise from higher brain regions than REM sleep (Solms, 2000).

In particular, evidence now suggests that dopamine-mediated SEEKING arousal may be of great importance for dream generation (Leger et al., 2010; Lena et al., 2005)

Despite these ambiguities, we still need to confront a seemingly up-side down state of affairs in our own brains:

The REM arousal networks apparently are more ancient than our brain-stem waking systems.

To make sense of this paradox, we might consider that a primitive form of emotional wakefulness may have evolved prior to the kind of wakefulness that we associate with neocortical function (with all of its sensory awareness and thought).

In other words, in ancient evolutionary history, raw primary-process consciousness might have initially existed exclusively as a kind of dreaming-type wakefulness--one that was full of emotional arousals.

This type of simple affective wakefulness may have been superseded by more cognitive frames of mind.

But the emotional arousals may still prevail during REM sleep.

As a result, the dream contents of human and animal minds may shift as their prevailing emotional arousals shift.

In order for higher cognitive brain regions to become optimally useful for learning and thought, it may be important to exercise emotion-related cognitive possibilities in the safety of dreaming sleep, thereby perhaps better helping integrate cognitive and affective issues.

During sleep, such emotional arousals remain hidden behind the motor paralysis called REM-atonia, but they are not completely eliminated, being evident in the many twitchings of the extremities.

Perhaps our emotionally rich dream-life is a residue of the progressive evolution of that kind of dual mentality; in the beginning such arousals may have been largely affective but, with brain expansion, they attained a balance between ancient affective and more modern cognitive processes.

This may facilitate complex problem solving (Levin et al., 2008).

The idea that an ancient emotional form of consciousness prevailed early in brain evolution is supported by the fact that when the brain mechanisms for atonia are damaged selectively, animals still exhibit regular periods of dreaming-type sleep.

Such animals act out their dreams because their large antigravity muscles no longer become so flaccid that they cannot move about.

These strange "oneric" periods provide a window into their, and perhaps our own, ancient emotional minds.

For instance, cats, whose inside eyelids (nictitating membranes) remain closed during these acted-out dreams (rendering them essentially blind), exhibit four major types of behavior patterns: predatory stalking, fearfulness, lashing out in apparent anger, and periodic bouts of grooming.

Our interpretation is that when a highly affective, nonreflective, dream-type consciousness first evolved, it was attended by abundant emotional activities whose free expressions were gradually inhibited and regulated in the course of evolution.

This was because such simple-minded solutions to living were no longer as adaptive as they once were.

The massive expansion of higher, more-cognitive brain regions in mammals may have required the evolution of new arousal mechanisms in the brain to help sustain waking in neocortical regions, thereby allowing higher, more cognitive forms of consciousness to emerge.

Thus, the more ancient brain arousal mechanisms controlling simple-minded emotional arousals, which may have been all that reptiles ever needed, would gradually have been suppressed and remolded as ones that controlled the arousal of REM sleep.

In this way, dreams may still be controlled primarily by ancient emotional arousal states but by ones that in more modern animals allow cognitive information to be better integrated with emotionally stressful arousals.

This could be a way to allow ancient frames of mind to still regulate higher information processing in more recently evolved animals.

In addition to its deep position in the brain stem, there is another reason to think that REM might be a primitive type of waking state that was brought under inhibition because it no longer sufficed to promote survival optimally:

REM is found in mammals but not in reptiles or fish.

Birds show only modest REM periods, for just a few seconds at a time.

It seems quite unlikely that the brain mechanisms that generate REM sleep evolved uniquely in mammals instead of emerging from preexisting ancient brain functions.

Surely at earlier stages of brain evolution, animals had simpler forms of consciousness, and with higher brain evolution, those ancient solutions had to be integrated with the more recently evolved brain functions.

It is possible that, during waking, PLAY is the brain system that promotes such integration in a way that is functionally similar to dreaming during sleep.

In sum, the projection of the evolving mammalian BrainMind toward cognitive sophistication required a major evolutionary step:

It needed the construction of new arousal systems to regulate the waking states of the thalamus and neocortex, as well as a new system to inhibit simple-minded emotionally (now expressed as REM activity).

We know that both these systems exist in mammalian brains.

The systems that arouse the cortex include biogenic amine (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) as well as acetylcholine-producing cell groups situated in the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), located in the upper regions of the pons.

In addition, various neuropeptide neurons, such as the orexin (also called hypcretin) ones concentrate in higher brain areas such as the lateral hypothalamus, are necessary for the smooth transition from slow-wave sleep into REM; without them amimals and humans exhibit narcolepsy, the sudden collapse from waking into the REM state (McCarley, 2011; Zaharna, et al., 2010).

The part of the brain that generates atonia during REM sleep is also different from those that generate the emotion-laden phasic activities of REM.

It is found directly below the locus coeruleus--the largest norepinephrine cell group of the brain, which facilitates arousal throughout the cortex and with particular force during emotional states (figure 1.1).

Why are we considering these arcane issues in the context of a PLAY chapter?

We envision a possible connection between PLAY and REM sleep:

If we are correct in thinking that a key function of REM within the mammalian brain is to promote the integration of complex affective information, PLAY systems may perform a similar function during waking life.

We suggest this possibility because, in play, many types of emotional behaviors are exhibited in the context of nonserious interactions.

Supporting this view is the fact that both REM and PLAY are heavily under control of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin.

Similar chemical mediators may be indicative of similar functions.

PLAY may consolidate the diverse behavioral components of different emotions under the sway of a feeling of social joy, allowing children to gradually develop habitual creative and positive ways of responding to their physical and social environments.

The PLAY urge may be of critical importance in the cultural and epigenetic construction of sophisticated social brains that can understand the emotional states and motives of others, opening the doors to sophisticated social cooperation and fellow feelings of camaraderie, compassion, empathy, and solidarity with and toward others.

PLAY promotes social intelligence (Goleman, 2006)

REM dreams may exert very similar functions on the diverse primary-process affective components that invade and give meaning to every life.

In other words, dreaming and play may have synergistic functions in the epigenetic creation of mental lives.

As we have noted before, it is now clear that only a few higher mental functions are endowed by our evolutionary heritage within the higher cognitive regions of our BrainMinds.

Most are learned, under strong cultural influences.

The basic emotional systems we have focused on here all participate in constructing our cognitive strengths and weaknesses as well as consolidating each of us as unique personalities.

The integration of our affective potentials with our cognitive abilities is created by the magic of each individual's unique developmental landscape.

Panksepp/Biven, "The Archaeology Of Mind", Chapter: PLAYful Dreamlike Circuits of the Brain, P 374-379.

i!i i!i i!i

11-04-14, 07:29 AM
I was dreamin' when I wrote this
Forgive me if it goes astray

The ADDer never remains on topic (as such) -
because there's no such thing as on / off topic - just 1 system representing understanding.

The ADDer is predisposed to 'dream state' whilst awake - equates to PLAY state - equates to distress-free state
- normal life in our current world (being asked questions which we can't and nobody can answer) -
is a bit like 'sleep torture' or waking us up chronically as we're about to fall asleep (enter dream state)

-- so failure to settle into daydream state (distress free) -> leads to chronic distress -> leads to all of the many diseases we associate with distress (diseases of Western living).

Daydream state - a state of mind - is one which we're predisposed to and which standard man acquires with wisdom.

So what's wrong with us ?

Just distress from not being able to enter 'a [virtual] beautiful place in the country' by virtue of idiot world insisting that we need to do pointless things ie things which are immoral from 5 years old till death
- at work, at home

- everywhere apart from the freedom we get when we sleep.

When nobody gets to tell us to do thoroughly pointless things.

Ahhh .. ... but how'll we ever get anything useful done if you're in 'reflective' state
- thing is, is that we'll only EVER get things done in introspective state

- as it waits until it has an optimal approach before attempting to introduce it.

What's the optimal approach ?
Simply freedom from compulsion to all people by eliminating the need for money to survive.

It's the single silver bullet which eliminates all human suffering.

Thereafter -> voluntary association -> equality -> voluntary engagement

ie PLAY at level of physical and mental and spiritual levels.

PLAY PHYSICAL - eg in the zone aerobic running
PLAY MENTAL - creative explorations in mind
PLAY SPIRITUAL - existence with an emptied (ie not fielding logical inconsistencies ie individual understanding personal context) mind

The commonality here is that PLAY appears to require a certain state of mind - perhaps the theta state of REM sleep ... ...

So - 'lost in music' - a state of mind - to lose oneself.

To lose oneself - occurs by virtue of eliminating self through understanding reality.

Elimination of self - to see the Universe as a connected whole - which all people suspect it really has to be - just that it blows the mind and especially the mathematical modellers - who simplify real world systems
- which cannot be simplified.

Just 1 system - the Universe.

11-04-14, 07:52 AM
This is an interesting one -

IL-1/TNF promote sleep
IL-1/TNF - profoundly pro-inflammatory

ADDer daydream state not accessed.
IL-1/TNF expression to send us back to sleep -> peripheral inflammation.

It marries up the idea of not being allowed to daydream with inflammation
- which we've previously just connected via chronic cortisol production;
cortisol resistance;
loss of regulation in the immune system

- anyway - same solution in both cases.

PLAY = DREAM (to mind)
thing about using evolutionary models of mind is that we're the only one with a mind - and; you have to be here (with a mind) to know how much one wants to simply daydream in the sun ... ... and if something's just that powerfully motivational- it must be ticking all of the 'play' boxes where play = distress-free ie optimal physio/psych wellbeing.


So - a particular state of mind which we're in in play - and the goal is to get back (permanently) to that state of mind - so the state exists in evolutionary models - it's just that the mind doesn't
- so use of animal models ie organisms that aren't driven mad by the frustration of existence is maybe valid.

11-04-14, 08:01 AM
So - the conclusion of all of that - is that we're not permitting people to engage in personally fulfilling daydreams - and that the net consequence of this is distress.<br><br>Once again - as we discover daydream, running barefoot, eating very little and when we do only vegetables, sun exposure <br>-&lt;- that the OPTIMAL lifestyle can be had without ANY money.<br><br>- and that money simply gets in the way ie buys you things which keep you away from that optimal life-style.<br><br>net conclusion - there's nothing wrong with ADDers or people -we've simply grasped materialism and it has destroyed us.<br><br>Nothing that carries a price is needed for optimal human body/mind/spirit functioning.<br>

11-04-14, 08:28 AM

So - a particular state of mind which we're in in play - and the goal is to get back (permanently) to that state of mind - so the state exists in evolutionary models - it's just that the mind doesn't
- so use of animal models ie organisms that aren't driven mad by the frustration of existence is maybe valid.

that a primitive form of emotional wakefulness may have evolved prior to the kind of wakefulness that we associate with neocortical function (with all of its sensory awareness and thought).

In other words, in ancient evolutionary history, raw primary-process consciousness might have initially existed exclusively as a kind of dreaming-type wakefulness--one that was full of emotional arousals.


That's the promised land.

A non-dual state of emotional balance.

It's a nice state.

11-04-14, 08:33 AM
I've noticed that when my dog is in REM sleep (dogs move, make noise and their eyes move) - that she can trigger muscular twitching in my eyes - very similar to what we experience in REM sleep.

So - dog asleep - human awake, human awake - dog asleep
- it sounds like an evolutionary mechanism of survival ie one one watch whilst the other was asleep.

Resonating with the EEG of a sleeping dog !!

The phrase is 'let sleeping dogs lie' ... ...

11-04-14, 08:38 AM
It is possible that, during waking, PLAY is the brain system that promotes such integration in a way that is functionally similar to dreaming during sleep.


PLAY = DREAM (to mind)

11-04-14, 09:05 AM
We envision a possible connection between PLAY and REM sleep:

If we are correct in thinking that a key function of REM within the mammalian brain is to promote the integration of complex affective information, PLAY systems may perform a similar function during waking life.PLAY (daydream) assists the individual to assemble their own mind.

This is what holds our attention.

Not being told (in workplace / classroom) what we should be training our mind towards.

The mind has a role in taking us back to:
hat a primitive form of emotional wakefulness may have evolved prior to the kind of wakefulness that we associate with neocortical function (with all of its sensory awareness and thought).

In other words, in ancient evolutionary history, raw primary-process consciousness might have initially existed exclusively as a kind of dreaming-type wakefulness--one that was full of emotional arousals.So - dream (night) and dream (day) as responsible for building (creatively) virtual models of understanding -

- attention obviously should be in creating this model of mind (towards completion of mind/wisdom)

- but attention hijacked by school/work which under the guidance of materialism dictates a variety of behavious which we must attend to - which're of no importance to man ie how to climb a human hierarchy, beat a human being, build things which pollute the planet, beat people to acquiring money etc etc

- ie education has been sequestered by a series of ideals which're WRONG
- and we can't pay attention because we don't get any reward from (in effect) any form of human competition.

The daydream is a chance to take stock and put things in order (assemble mind) ... ... but the end goal (completion of mind) -> is to be happy ie access that original state of emotional balance which allowed us permission just to be of even keel - ie happy in pure existence.

So Peripheral's right - it's that original state which we're striving to access via ADD daydreaming or creatively building a globally consistent model of midn to wisdom through accumulating and putting data into order.

11-04-14, 10:16 AM
Play - rough and tumble - educate motor neural systems ? ie balance - known to involve dopamine eg in Parkinson's
Play - creativity/mind - educate mind ? known to involve dopamine
Play - art/music - educate sensory (sense quality) systems ? eg musical chills known to drive dopamine

So - can we 'broadly' speaking describe PLAY as some form of education - a form of education or re-arrangement of neurones which then go onto perform some role.

So - not usually thought of education at the level of motor or sensory - but the underlying nature to PLAY as neural assembly to what we might call quality.

A neural complexity of arrangement driving rewarded by dopamine hit ?

11-04-14, 10:22 AM
That idea seems to attract attention.

The basic idea of PLAY as a dopamine-hit reward based around some neural system increasing in complexity resulting in a more informationally rich model or a more informationally rich immersion of the individual within reality.

Why bother ?

Evolutionarily weaving a tapestry - the tapestry evolves to informational complexity - we need to evolve to experience informational complexity for there to be informational complexity ie consciousness requires that there's a lock and key ie a level of informational complexity and the capacity to recognize that informational complexity in order for there to be complexity at all ie evolution of consciousness requires recognition of complexity.

11-04-14, 10:57 AM
The basic idea of PLAY as a dopamine-hit reward based around some neural system increasing in complexity resulting in a more informationally rich model or a more informationally rich immersion of the individual within reality.

So we can take this idea back to Markham's Intense world theory.

And back to the idea on site of

carb/protein (insulin/IGF-1) based growth in body
ketone body (valproic acid) based neural rearrangement

- valproic acid resulting in highly connected neurones - an overloaded child - autism.


ADD sensitivity can also be brought back to the idea of a more interconnected neural system (same idea as above - more information availed through increased interconnection).

Increased interconnection -> smaller brain size (seen in ADHD)



PLAY relates to a pattern of behaviour (different at each stage of the life-cycle) which puts in place ie which rearranges our existing neural mass to complexity (increased inter-connectivity).
As it does, our life-experience enriches.

Through PLAY to Quality of life.

Education in its broadest sense (through play) -> to increased quality of life through modifying the neural networks which transduce reality - motor, sensory, understanding into an inner context.

11-04-14, 12:13 PM
short chain fatty acid valproic acid (VPA) (

connects to

Short-chain fatty acid fermentation products of the gut microbiome (

via soluble fibre.

Vegetables -> internal quality (neural rearrangement) food ?

... ... but ! the paper suggests SCFA basis to autism.


--- General idea ---

carb [body development] -> ketone [neural development / re-arrangement]

Not vegetables - but gestational diabetes -> ketones

What is gestational diabetes ?
Stress (distress) and the wrong diet ??

Management (
For many women, changing diet and exercising more will be enough to control your gestational diabetes. Some women will need medication. (


--- Summary ---

Not valproic acid underlying dramatic rise in -> ASD spectrum
Not gut biome soluble fibre fermentation to SCFA -> ASD spectrum


persistent variation in blood glucose levels -> ketones through gestational diabetes -> ASD spectrum

Variation in blood glucose levels -> the wrong foods, lack of exercise and distress.

11-04-14, 03:36 PM
Once again - as we discover daydream, running barefoot, eating very little and when we do only vegetables, sun exposure - that the OPTIMAL lifestyle can be had without ANY money and that money simply gets in the way ie buys you things which keep you away from that optimal life-style.

net conclusion - there's nothing wrong with ADDers or people -we've simply grasped materialism and it has destroyed us. 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== free yourself from the affliction that is 'civilization' shaped in materialism giving homage to the primitive reward system - 'to eat thy neighbour' - to beat other human beings in competitive practices

Fact is - is that we're not civilized until the properly human reward system to make oneself better for group benefit - is seized.

We're all dead shortly after being born - the only lasting legacy 'd be NOT to drop the baton.
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