View Full Version : ADHD effects on next generation


Student 2026
09-29-15, 09:30 PM
Hi there,

we talked about ADHD in class today, and wondered about ADHD medication effects on the next generation.
Are children somehow more or less active if their parents took ADHD medications before or even through pregnancy?
Does anybody know if there is a research about it, and could you post a link or something?

Thanks a lot for you help.

SB_UK
09-30-15, 12:19 AM
Most data on Dextroamphetamine exposure in pregnancy comes from studies of drug abuse. Amphetamine or cocaine abuse is associated with low birth weight, prematurity, and increased maternal and fetal morbidity. These are likely related to placental vasoconstriction (Plessinger 1993 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8513624)). However, decreased birth weight was also noted in infants born to women who were prescribed Dehtroamphetamine at lower therapeutic dosages to control weight gain (Naeye 1983 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6844388)). If medication was continued beyond the 28th week of pregnancy, there was a 100g to 400g reduction in weight of the infants, with no change in birth length or head circumference (Naeye 1983 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6844388); Golub 2005 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16167346)).
http://womensmentalhealth.org/posts/clinical-update-use-of-stimulant-medications-in-pregnancy/

SB_UK
09-30-15, 12:26 AM
Dexedrine has a close association through uterine development and post- in weight gain.

Striking effect on appetite suppression.

With a time-frame which is remarkably similar to the timings of human meals (strictly carb based meals) ie approx. 4 hours separated.

You can feel the effects of dexedrine wearing down after 3 3/4 - 4 hours.

You can feel - after dexedrine - the satisfaction which also comes from eating when hungry.

Although we take 3 meals a day as gospel as part of life - it's a bit odd that evolutionary creatures should evolve the need for such regular food intake - from a world in which regular food intake wouldn't have been a given.

There's something wrong (doesn't make sense) - the current eating patterns of man.

Mother's milk should represent a high nutritional point in human development - but instead, human beings extend after this initial stage into food which is so much richer - when I think we should be going the other way.

-*-

Wndering whether dexedrine usage modulates maternal eating habits - has knock on effects on intra-uterine growth.
Whether 'adverse' conditions for growth represent epigenetic programming nutritional changes occurring only during oocyte development and very early in gestation may permanently alter the methylation status of many genes and probably their subsequent expression of foetus twoards living without food - resulting in increased growth (Barker Hypothesis) upon birth.

Disease associated with child born under adverse conditions.

Women exposed to the famine during mid- to late gestation had babies with significantly reduced birth weights. Babies whose mothers were exposed only during early gestation had normal birth weights; however, they grew up to have higher rates of obesity than those born before and after the war and higher rates than those exposed during mid- to late gestation (3 (http://www.pnas.org/content/107/39/16757.full#ref-3)). Thus, although reduced birth weight is the most easily measured proxy for intrauterine deprivation, it is notAdverse fetal environment followed by plentiful food in adulthood may be a recipe for adult chronic disease.the cause of later adult disease, and it does not always accompany the types of exposure that lead to adult disease. The programming of adult obesity by intrauterine food restriction without accompanying changes in birth weight has been replicated in rodent and sheep animal models (4 (http://www.pnas.org/content/107/39/16757.full#ref-4), 5 (http://www.pnas.org/content/107/39/16757.full#ref-5)).

ref 1 (http://www.pnas.org/content/107/39/16757.full)

SB_UK
09-30-15, 01:16 AM
So - we want to know what the ideal conditions for the developing embryo are.

The developing embryo is affected by maternal nutritional environment. [accepted]

Maternal nutritional environment changes dependent on food intake pattern. [accepted]

Food intake patterns alter dependent on level of stress mother is under. [accepted]

Many studies on the effects of undernutrition at various trimesters and effects on disease. [accepted]

What about over-nutrition ?
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0072759/

That's ^^ interesting - but there's no way that a pregnant mother can just up or down her BMI. There is a solution though *.

But under-nutrition and over-nutrition take on different meanings dependent on what is being eaten ie you can either eat an excess amount of cake or kimchi ... ... there's a metabolic difference.

What's the they difference ?
Effects on blood glucose levels.

Returning us to ?

With a time-frame which is remarkably similar to the timings of human meals (strictly carb based meals) ie approx. 4 hours separated.

Although we take 3 meals a day as gospel as part of life - it's a bit odd that evolutionary creatures should evolve the need for such regular food intake - from a world in which regular food intake wouldn't have been a given.

There's something wrong (doesn't make sense) - the current eating patterns of man.* Natural appetite regulation through maintaining a diet which maintains a stable blood glucose.

-*-

So suggestion that there's a transition in utero to postpartum - where nursing mother maintains high carb intake with very low glycaemic index (blood glucose maintenance) and then shifts towards a similar profile with greater emphasis on ketone bodies with birth and the 'learning' [broad sense ie neural] paradigm taking over from physical bodily development.

Eliminate distress + alter food intake profile in pregnant mother.
Then alter food intake again (towards ketones) as 'learning' takes over from developmental biology as our paradigm.

Dexedrine operates to alter maternal nutritional type, preference, amount ? having conseqences on foetal development.

Noting low birth weight connection in ADDers and Maternal food deprivation (in later trimesters from the article above).

namazu
09-30-15, 01:21 AM
SB's jumped right in with some good references.

I wanted to take a step back and note that a lot of this is really tricky to study.

One reason for that is because activity levels in babies could be related to a lot of things besides just medication use during pregnancy -- including things like genetics, eating habits and nutrition, use of other drugs, exercise, stress, and so on -- and many of those things can be affected by a mother's ADHD -- which means they can be hard to untangle from the direct effects of medication use.


Another reason for this is because (as the quote in SB's first post suggested) there hasn't been a whole lot of research on ADHD medications taken as prescribed at therapeutic doses during pregnancy -- there have been far more studies of babies born to mothers who abused drugs during pregnancy.

There are women who do take medications throughout pregnancy to treat their ADHD, but most women are currently encouraged to stop taking medications (in large part, because we don't know what the meds do to the developing babies!). I think there will be an increasing number of babies born to women who took medication throughout pregnancy (or at least early in pregnancy before they realized they were pregnant), simply because more adults are using ADHD medications than in the past.

But the kind of randomized, blinded, controlled trial that could really help settle the matter simply isn't going to happen -- there are lots of practical and ethical issues that make such a trial infeasible.


That said, we can get clues to the effects of ADHD medications on babies from other sources, as long as we keep the limitations of those sources in mind and don't try to reach too much in drawing conclusions. Studies of women who took (too-high doses of) amphetamines during pregnancy may provide some clues, and studies of animals who were given (normal or high doses of) amphetamines during pregnancy can provide clues, for example.

Now I return you to the actual-reference-fest where you can take a look at some of these studies... :)

SB_UK
09-30-15, 01:28 AM
The core human problem appears to be - that we're slaves to the wrong master.

Human beings have generated agriculture (cereals, dairy, animal rearing) which furnish us with food types which result in blood glucose / glutamate elevation ... ... which're our problem.

We've simply been drawn and developed an entire food ecosystem around sugar, starch and glutamate.

The ^^^ McDonalds (not so) Happy meal.

sarek
09-30-15, 02:40 AM
MOD NOTE: Here is a reminder about the original topic of this thread which is that of the effect of ADHD medication on the next generation. Lets avoid straying off topic.



we talked about ADHD in class today, and wondered about ADHD medication effects on the next generation.
Are children somehow more or less active if their parents took ADHD medications before or even through pregnancy?
Does anybody know if there is a research about it, and could you post a link or something?

SB_UK
09-30-15, 07:27 AM
So - extent to which dexedrine alters maternal metabolic milieu away from gestation-friendly represents itself through epigenetic reprogramming of child in utero - with knock on consequences (the newly printed epigenome) - for child in the big wide world out there of only sugar, starch and glutamate.

So - if dexedrine normalizes metabolic milieu - better for child - and if not - not.

Might dexedrine help to correct for stress-induced (dexedrine as stress-relief) fluctuations in metabolic milieu ?
Yes.

If only because adverse nutritional factors represent self-medication (ie sweet / fatty foods) - and so dexedrine (at therapeutic dose) should eliminate allure of factors which thereafter result in wild fluctuations in the developing embryo's environment.

-*-

So - the answer 'd be - it depends on what dexedrine does to maternal behaviour.

SB_UK
09-30-15, 08:00 AM
If you like though ^^^ represents the basic point I'm trying to make about the effects of dexedrine on human (not just maternal) behaviour.

Once you've gained the power 'to pay attention' - what do you use it for ?

To make yourself better (eg defined above as to maintain a stable metabolic environment) or not (eg here - to stop eating - which dexedrine will also support).

SB_UK
09-30-15, 08:02 AM
Further note - (as described elsewhere on site) - that dexedrine KILLS draw for alcohol/nicotine patches (as surrogate for smoking) - both of which (these self-medications) are proven harmful to developing embryo.

-*-

Summarising the general idea - 'so it's what you do with 'it' that counts'.

sarahsweets
09-30-15, 10:08 AM
I took medication before all my pregnancies and my husband was on ritalin as well for narolepsy. I stopped during the pregnancy. If anything I think stress as the most impact on a developing fetus.

SB_UK
09-30-15, 02:16 PM
I took medication before all my pregnancies and my husband was on ritalin as well for narolepsy. I stopped during the pregnancy. If anything I think stress as the most impact on a developing fetus.

exactly - but what does stress mean ? (general question)

shevs56
09-30-15, 03:46 PM
i can't help with the research but i can tell you what it feels like to have it imagine if you couldn't tune out a clock that you sit in front of during class or if you are done what you need to do all you want is to get others off your back it also gives you undying reserves of energy or restlessness if this is applied to next gen han it could mean that those who have it for next gen will almost garenteed be trying to avoid things that they find disinteresting and trying to focus on only things that they want to in short we will continue to have limited focus on anything "generally disinteresting" most commonly for teens such as myself math and reading and writing (excluding the internet)