View Full Version : history of ADHD (almost 2000 years old?)


daveddd
04-01-16, 06:45 PM
i know a lot of you guys know a lot of this

i still think its a cool paper though

especially for the "ADHD was just invented for kids who need a spanking" types

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4694551/#B32

mctavish23
04-01-16, 07:37 PM
dave,

Well said. Also check out Sir Alexander Crichton's work.

tc

Robert

daveddd
04-01-16, 07:45 PM
dave,

Well said. Also check out Sir Alexander Crichton's work.

tc

Robert

from the paper (i know its long and likely just something to skim)


Sir Alexander Crichton (1763-1856) was a Scottish physician and obtained his M.D. from the University of Leiden in The Netherlands, and then completed his studies in Paris, Stuttgart, Vienna, Halle, Berlin and Göttingen[6,44]. In addition to a well-known physician, he also became a prestigious chemist and mineralogist, with original contributions to all these fields[45]. Between 1804 and 1819 he lived in Russia, becoming the royal physician to the tsar Alexander.

In 1798 he published his influential book “An inquiry into the nature and origin of mental derangement: Comprehending a concise system of the physiology and pathology of the human mind and a history of the passions and their effects”[46]. In the second of the three volumes of his inquiry, he included a chapter “On Attention and its Diseases”, where he provided a definition of attention and emphasized that the intensity of healthy attention varies within a normal range both between individuals and even within a person at different times[46]. Crichton described a disorder characterized by abnormal degrees of inattention and distractibility and the incapacity to attend with the necessary degree of constancy to any object, and that was associated with unusual levels of impulsivity, restlessness and emotional reactivity[46], almost entirely consistent with the diagnosis for the predominantly inattentive presentation of ADHD[3,35,47]. Furthermore, he indicated that the condition “can be born with a person” and that may become evident “at a very early period of life”[46]. This feature also appears to be consistent with the current construct of ADHD, as outlined in DSM-5, that among its diagnostic features it includes the requirement that several symptoms have to be present before age 12 years[3].

In accordance with Weikard’s hypotheses, Chrichton believed that attentional problems were a consequence of dysregulated “sensibility of the nerves”[42,44]. He also reported that these ADHD-behaviors interfered with education, suggesting as well that children with such problems needed special education intervention, as nowadays is recognized and recommended by consensus and treatment guidelines[48,49]. In addition, as suggested earlier by Weikard[41] and has been demonstrated in the 20th century[4,43,50], Chrichton reported that problems of inattention and distractibility diminished with age. He also indicated that problems with attention were associated with many other mental and physical disorders[47].

The different examples of patients with great distractibility, incapacity of attending, mental restlessness and overactivity provided by Chrichton to describe what he called a “disease of attention”[46] (Table ​(Table1)1) could be caused by a variety of etiologies, including a metabolic or an endocrine illness, a head injury or neurological disorders such as epilepsy. However, all symptoms observed and depicted by Chrichton[46], as did earlier Weikard[41] can be associated with ADHD diagnostic criteria as defined in the current DSM-5[3].

daveddd
04-01-16, 07:47 PM
:rolleyes:emotional regulation, 250 years ago, and the DSM still won't allow it