View Full Version : Article: Study on efficacy of Neurofeedback for treatment of AD(H)D

01-07-08, 12:28 AM
(Credit goes to francis_r ( for finding the article)

From Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Vol. 30, No. 2, June 2005:

"Electroencephalographic Biofeedback in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" (

In the conclusion the neurofeedback therapy was given a score of Level 3: Probably efficacious. The meaning of this scores is:

Level 1: Not empirically supported. This classification is assigned to treatments that have been described and supported only by anecdotal reports or case studies in non–peer-reviewed journals.
Level 2: Possibly efficacious. This classification is considered appropriate for
treatments that have been investigated in at least one study that had sufficient statistical power and well-identified outcome measures but lacked randomized assignment to a control condition internal to the study.
Level 3: Probably efficacious. Treatment approaches that have been evaluated and shown to produce beneficial effects in multiple observational studies, clinical studies, wait list control studies, and within-subject and between-subject replication studies merit this classification.

Level 4: Efficacious. To be considered efficacious, a treatment must meet the following criteria:
In a comparison with a no-treatment control group, alternative treatment group, or sham (placebo) control using randomized assignment, the investigational treatment is shown to be statistically significantly superior to the control condition or the investigational treatment is equivalent to a treatment of established efficacy in a study with sufficient power to detect moderate differences.
The studies have been conducted with a population treated for a specific problem, from whom inclusion criteria are delineated in a reliable, operationally defined manner.
The study used valid and clearly specified outcome measures related to the problem being treated.
The data are subjected to appropriate data analysis.
The diagnostic and treatment variables and procedures are clearly defined in a manner that permits replication of the study by independent researchers.
The superiority or equivalence of the investigational treatment have been shown in at least two independent studies [74].Level 5: Efficacious and specific. To meet the criteria for this classification,
the treatment must be demonstrated to be statistically superior to a credible sham therapy, pill, or bona fide treatment in at least two independent studies.

For more information on Neurofeedback, see: ( (