ADD Forums - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Support and Information Resources Community  

Go Back   ADD Forums - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Support and Information Resources Community > CO-EXISTING CONDITIONS > Anxiety Disorders, OCD & PTSD
Register Blogs FAQ Chat Members List Calendar Donate Gallery Arcade Mark Forums Read

Anxiety Disorders, OCD & PTSD A forum to discuss Anxiety, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Simple Phobias, and Social Anxiety Disorder

Closed Thread
 
Thread Tools Display Modes
  #1  
Old 01-13-06, 12:37 PM
Andi's Avatar
Andi Andi is offline
Forummarm
 

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: ?
Posts: 4,870
Blog Entries: 1
Thanks: 1,435
Thanked 7,901 Times in 2,455 Posts
Andi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond repute
NAMI Fact Sheet...Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

What are anxiety disorders?
Everyone knows what it's like to feel anxious-the "butterflies" in your stomach before that first date, the "jitters" before giving a speech, the sweaty palms or racing heartbeat that often accompany challenging or dangerous situations. These feelings are normal.
But what if you were to find yourself feeling anxious most of the time instead of just under specific circumstances? What if you couldn't even find a particular reason for feeling this way? What if you found yourself avoiding certain everyday routines or activities altogether in an effort to curb the stressful feelings they cause? What if you simply were to become "paralyzed" by your own nervousness? This is what life is often like for those suffering from one of the group of biologically based mental illnesses
known as anxiety disorders.

What are the different types of anxiety disorders?


Panic disorder
Those suffering from panic disorder experience reoccurring and unexpected panic attacks-instances of extreme fear or discomfort that start abruptly and build to a rapid peak, usually within ten minutes. Panic attacks are characterized by such physical symptoms as heart palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, the sensation of choking, chest pain, nausea, dizziness, disorientation, fear of losing control or dying, numbness, chills, and hot flushes. Additionally, panic attacks are usually accompanied
by a sense of looming danger and the strong desire to escape. Attacks can be brought on by specific triggers or can occur "out of the blue." The frequency of attacks tends to vary according to the individual.

To be diagnosed with panic disorder, one's panic attacks must have been followed by at least one month of steady worry about having more attacks, concern about why the attacks have happened and what they mean (fears of having a serious physical illness or "losing one's mind" are common), or a significant change in behavior brought about by the attacks (many feel the need to avoid certain situations or remove themselves from particular environments).

Panic disorder is diagnosed more often in women than in men and, although the age of onset varies considerably, is most commonly experienced for the first time between late adolescence and the mid-30s. Up to one-half of those diagnosed with panic disorder also have agoraphobia (see below).

Phobias
Defined as exaggerated, involuntary, and irrational fears of particular situations or things, phobias are generally divided into three separate types.

* Specific (or simple) phobia This type of phobia is brought about by a specific object or situation such as flying, heights, needles, or snakes. Specific phobias are generally more common in women than in men and usually first appear during childhood.
* Social phobia (social anxiety disorder) Limited specifically to social situations, this particular phobia is typified by extreme fear of meeting new people and of being embarrassed, humiliated, or judged by others. Social phobia appears to be diagnosed equally among the sexes. Usually first appearing in the mid-teens, social phobia sometimes arises from a history of childhood shyness.

A diagnosis of specific or social phobia requires that exposure to the feared object or situation induces anxiety (often in the form of panic attacks), that the individual experiencing the phobia recognizes the irrational nature of their fear, and that the anxiety caused by the phobia becomes disruptive to the individual's lifestyle.
* Agoraphobia Those with agoraphobia have an intense fear of being trapped in particular places or situations or of not being able to find help if they experience anxiety or a panic attack. Fears of those with this type of phobia often center around being alone in an open area or being in a large crowd. Often, those with agoraphobia avoid such situations altogether; being subjected to such situations causes notable anxiety or panic.
It is important to remember that diagnosed phobias cause severe impairment-everyone has certain fears and experiences times of shyness and anxiety.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
OCD is an anxiety disorder characterized by persistently intrusive and inappropriate thoughts, impulses, or images that run through one's mind (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors that one feels they must do (compulsions). Common obsessions include fear of contamination, fixation on lucky or unlucky numbers, fear of danger to oneself or others, need for order or exactness, and excessive doubt. The most common compulsions performed in response to these obsessions include ritualistic handwashing, counting, checking, hoarding, and arranging.

Although most people experience such thoughts and behaviors at some times, OCD is considered to occur when these obsessions and compulsions are experienced for more than an hour each day in a way that interferes with one's life or causes great anxiety. Equally common in males and females, OCD often appears earlier in males. Generally, the disorder first begins in adolescence or early adulthood, although it may start in childhood.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Personally experiencing or witnessing a violent or tragic event that resulted in feelings of intense fear, helplessness, or horror can sometimes cause PTSD. Events that often lead to the development of this anxiety disorder include rape, war, natural disasters, abuse, and serious accidents. While it is common to experience a brief state of anxiety or depression after such occurrences, those with PTSD continually reexperience the traumatic event through ways such as nightmares, hallucinations, or flashbacks; avoid all things associated with the event (often displaying an accompanying sense of detachment); and exhibit increased arousal (e.g., difficulty sleeping, irritability, difficulty concentrating, extreme alertness, jumpiness). Those diagnosed with PTSD experience symptoms for longer than one month and are unable to function as they did before the event. PTSD usually appears within three months of the traumatic experience, but in some circumstances can surface months or even years later. PTSD can occur at any age.

Similar to PTSD is an anxiety disorder known as acute stress disorder. Also in response to a traumatic event, acute stress disorder involves symptoms of re-experience, avoidance, and increased arousal as well. The main difference between the two disorders is twofold. First of all, acute stress disorder features a greater element of dissociation-those with the disorder experience detachment, a sense of withdrawal from reality, or, even sometimes amnesia. The other major distinction between PTSD and acute stress disorder is in the length of time the symptoms are experienced. Acute stress disorder is only diagnosed if the disturbance occurs within four weeks of the traumatic event and lasts for a minimum of two days and a maximum of four weeks. What is first sometimes thought to be acute stress disorder is often eventually diagnosed as PTSD.

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Individuals with GAD experience excessive anxiety and worry about several everyday events or activities. Furthermore, the anxiety in those with GAD is difficult to control and causes notable complications in daily work and social settings. Physical symptoms of the disorder include edginess, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbances. To be diagnosed with GAD, one must experience this excessive anxiety for the majority of days during a period of six months or longer. Most of those with GAD claim to have felt anxious for their entire lives, and the disorder is often first seen in childhood or adolescence. However, adult onset of the disorder is not uncommon.

Other anxiety disorders
Certain persons can experience anxiety in response to a general medical condition or from substance abuse. Others exhibit certain signs of particular anxiety disorders without meeting all the criteria for an official diagnosis.

How common are anxiety disorders?
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illnesses in the United States. These serious brain disorders are estimated to affect more than 20 million Americans (approximately one in nine) every year.

Are anxiety disorders associated with other disorders?
Most definitely. It is quite common for one anxiety disorder to coexist with another or several others. Furthermore, those with anxiety disorders frequently also suffer from depression, substance-related disorders, and/or eating disorders. In fact, it is estimated that over half of those diagnosed with panic disorder or OCD have depression too.

What causes anxiety disorders?
Several factors seem to contribute to the development of an anxiety disorder. Much new research suggests that these disorders both run in families and are the result of one's brain chemistry. Certain life experiences and one's general personality are also thought to influence the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder.

How can anxiety disorders be treated?
Effective treatments are available for anxiety disorders-those experiencing symptoms should consult their physician and not feel condemned to their illness. While the symptoms of the various anxiety disorders do differ, both medication and talk therapy have proven helpful in alleviating many of the problems of those faced with each of these illnesses. The most common medications used to treat anxiety disorders are antidepressants and benzodiazepines. There are a variety of drugs of both types that have proven quite helpful. So, if a particular medication does not seem to work, others are available. And, many new drugs are on the horizon. As always, one should speak with their doctor about any medication questions or concerns. The forms of talk therapy most often effective in treating anxiety disorders are behavioral therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behavioral therapy involves relaxation techniques and gradual exposure to the thing or situation that causes the anxiety in an attempt to reduce that anxiety. Cognitive-behavioral therapy works on helping individuals react differently to what causes them anxiety by changing their thinking patterns.




__________________
Be nice to me, I have powers and Andrew no longer compensates me with shoes!!
Do what you feel in your heart to be right - for you'll be criticized anyway. You'll be damned if you do, and damned if you don't.--Eleanor Roosevelt
I'm all in favor of keeping dangerous weapons out of the hands of fools. Let's start with typewriters. --Frank Lloyd Wright

Everything I write is fully substantiated by my personal opinion.

Last edited by Crazy~Feet; 08-14-07 at 03:50 PM.. Reason: Removed dead link
The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Andi For This Useful Post:
JamalJ (07-12-12), Spacemom (02-19-16)
  #2  
Old 01-13-06, 08:36 PM
Andi's Avatar
Andi Andi is offline
Forummarm
 

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: ?
Posts: 4,870
Blog Entries: 1
Thanks: 1,435
Thanked 7,901 Times in 2,455 Posts
Andi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond repute
NAMI Fact Sheet...PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

What is post-traumatic stress disorder?

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur after someone experiences a traumatic event that caused intense fear, helplessness, or horror. PTSD can result from personally experienced traumas (e.g., rape, war, natural disasters, abuse, serious accidents, and captivity) or from the witnessing or learning of a violent or tragic event.

While it is common to experience a brief state of anxiety or depression after such occurrences, people with PTSD continually re-experience the traumatic event; avoid individuals, thoughts, or situations associated with the event; and have symptoms of excessive emotions. People with this disorder have these symptoms for longer than one month and cannot function as well as they did before the traumatic event. PTSD symptoms usually appear within three months of the traumatic experience; however, they sometimes occur months or even years later.

How common is PTSD?

Studies suggest that anywhere between 2 percent and 9 percent of the population has had some degree of PTSD. However, the likelihood of developing the disorder is greater when someone is exposed to multiple traumas or traumatic events early in life (or both), especially if the trauma is long term or repeated. More cases of this disorder are found among inner-city youths and people who have recently emigrated from troubled countries. And women seem to develop PTSD more often than men.

Veterans are perhaps the people most often associated with PTSD, or what was once referred to as "shell shock" or "battle fatigue." The Anxiety Disorders Association of America notes that an estimated 15 percent to 30 percent of the 3.5 million men and women who served in Vietnam have suffered from PTSD.

What are the symptoms of PTSD?

Although the symptoms for individuals with PTSD can vary considerably, they generally fall into three categories:

* Re-experience - Individuals with PTSD often experience recurrent and intrusive recollections of and/or nightmares about the stressful event. Some may experience flashbacks, hallucinations, or other vivid feelings of the event happening again. Others experience great psychological or physiological distress when certain things (objects, situations, etc.) remind them of the event.

* Avoidance - Many with PTSD will persistently avoid things that remind them of the traumatic event. This can result in avoiding everything from thoughts, feelings, or conversations associated with the incident to activities, places, or people that cause them to recall the event. In others there may be a general lack of responsiveness signaled by an inability to recall aspects of the trauma, a decreased interest in formerly important activities, a feeling of detachment from others, a limited range of emotion, and/or feelings of hopelessness about the future.

* Increased arousal - Symptoms in this area may include difficulty falling or staying asleep, irritability or outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, becoming very alert or watchful, and/or jumpiness or being easily startled.

It is important to note that those with PTSD often use alcohol or other drugs in an attempt to self-medicate. Individuals with this disorder may also be at an increased risk for suicide.

How is PTSD treated?

There are a variety of treatments for PTSD, and individuals respond to treatments differently. PTSD often can be treated effectively with psychotherapy or medication or both.

Behavior therapy focuses on learning relaxation and coping techniques. This therapy often increases the patient's exposure to a feared situation as a way of making him or her gradually less sensitive to it. Cognitive therapy is therapy that helps people with PTSD take a close look at their thought patterns and learn to do less negative and nonproductive thinking. Group therapy helps for many people with PTSD by having them get to know others who have had similar situations and learning that their fears and feelings are not uncommon.

Medication is often used along with psychotherapy. Antidepressant and anti-anxiety medications may help lessen symptoms of PTSD such as sleep problems (insomnia or nightmares), depression, and edginess.



http://www.nami.org/Content/ContentG...s_Disorder.htm
__________________
Be nice to me, I have powers and Andrew no longer compensates me with shoes!!
Do what you feel in your heart to be right - for you'll be criticized anyway. You'll be damned if you do, and damned if you don't.--Eleanor Roosevelt
I'm all in favor of keeping dangerous weapons out of the hands of fools. Let's start with typewriters. --Frank Lloyd Wright

Everything I write is fully substantiated by my personal opinion.
The Following User Says Thank You to Andi For This Useful Post:
whitestripesfan (11-23-08)
  #3  
Old 01-13-06, 09:06 PM
Andi's Avatar
Andi Andi is offline
Forummarm
 

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: ?
Posts: 4,870
Blog Entries: 1
Thanks: 1,435
Thanked 7,901 Times in 2,455 Posts
Andi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond repute
NAMI Fact Sheet...OCD

Obsessive-compulsive disorder


A woman visits her dermatologist, complaining of extremely dry skin and seldom feeling clean. She showers for two hours every day.

A lawyer insists on making coffee several times each day. His colleagues do not realize that he lives in fear that the coffee will be poisoned, and he feels compelled to pour most of it down the drain. The lawyer is so obsessed with these thoughts that he spends 12 hours a day at work -- four of them worrying about contaminated coffee.

A man cannot bear to throw anything away. Junk mail, old newspapers, empty milk cartons all "could contain something valuable that might be useful someday." If he throws things away, "something terrible will happen." He hoards so much clutter that he can no longer walk through his house. Insisting that nothing be thrown away, he moves to another house where he continues to hoard.

A 10 year old girl keeps apologizing for "disturbing" her class. She feels that she is too restless and is clearing her throat too loudly. Her teachers are puzzled and over time become annoyed at her repeated apologies since they did not notice any sounds or movements. She is also preoccupied with "being good all the time".

These people suffer obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that more than 2 percent of the U.S. population, or nearly one out of every 40 people, will suffer from OCD at some point in their lives. The disorder is two to three times more common than schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

What is Obsessive-compulsive disorder?

Obsessions are intrusive, irrational thoughts -- unwanted ideas or impulses that repeatedly well up in a person's mind. Again and again, the person experiences disturbing thoughts, such as "My hands must be contaminated; I must wash them"; "I may have left the gas stove on"; "I am going to injure my child." On one level, the sufferer knows these obsessive thoughts are irrational. But on another level, he or she fears these thoughts might be true. Trying to avoid such thoughts creates great anxiety.

Compulsions are repetitive rituals such as handwashing, counting, checking, hoarding, or arranging. An individual repeats these actions, perhaps feeling momentary relief, but without feeling satisfaction or a sense of completion. People with OCD feel they must perform these compulsive rituals or something bad will happen.

Most people at one time or another experience obsessive thoughts or compulsive behaviors. Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurs when an individual experiences obsessions and compulsions for more than an hour each day, in a way that interferes with his or her life.

OCD is often described as "a disease of doubt." Sufferers experience "pathological doubt" because they are unable to distinguish between what is possible, what is probable, and what is unlikely to happen.

Who gets OCD?

People from all walks of life can get OCD. It strikes people of all social and ethnic groups and both males and females. Symptoms typically begin during childhood, the teenage years or young adulthood.

What causes OCD?

A large body of scientific evidence suggests that OCD results from a chemical imbalance in the brain. For years, mental health professionals incorrectly assumed OCD resulted from bad parenting or personality defects. This theory has been disproven over the last 20 years. OCD symptoms are not relieved by psychoanalysis or other forms of "talk therapy," but there is evidence that behavior therapy can be effective, alone or in combination with medication. People with OCD can often say "why" they have obsessive thoughts or why they behave compulsively. But the thoughts and the behavior continue.

People whose brains are injured sometimes develop OCD, which suggests it is a physical condition. If a placebo is given to people who are depressed or who experience panic attacks, 40 percent will say they feel better. If a placebo is given to people who experience obsessive-compulsive disorder, only about two percent say they feel better. This also suggests a physical condition.

Clinical researchers have implicated certain brain regions in OCD. They have discovered a strong link between OCD and a brain chemical called serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps nerve cells communicate.

Scientists have also observed that people with OCD have increased metabolism in the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes of the brain. This, scientists believe, causes repetitive movements, rigid thinking, and lack of spontaneity. Successful treatment with medication or behavior therapy produces a decrease in the over activity of this brain circuitry. People with OCD often have high levels of the hormone vasopressin.

In layperson's terms, something in the brain is stuck, like a broken record. Judith Rapoport, M.D., describes it in her book, The Boy Who Couldn't Stop Washing, as "grooming behaviors gone wild."

How do people with OCD typically react to their disorder?

People with OCD generally attempt to hide their problem rather than seek help. Often they are remarkably successful in concealing their obsessive-compulsive symptoms from friends and co-workers. An unfortunate consequence of this secrecy is that people with OCD generally do not receive professional help until years after the onset of their disease. By that time, the obsessive-compulsive rituals may be deeply ingrained and very difficult to change.

How long does OCD last?

OCD will not go away by itself, so it is important to seek treatment. Although symptoms may become less severe from time to time, OCD is a chronic disease. Fortunately, effective treatments are available that make life with OCD much easier to manage.

Is age a factor in OCD?

OCD usually starts at an early age, often before adolescence. It may be mistaken at first for autism, pervasive developmental disorder, or Tourette's syndrome, a disorder that may include obsessive doubting and compulsive touching as symptoms.

Like depression, OCD tends to worsen as the person grows older, if left untreated. Scientists hope, however, that when the OCD is treated while the person is still young, the symptoms will not get worse with time.

What are other examples of behaviors typical of people who suffer from OCD?

People who do the following may have OCD:
  • repeatedly check things, perhaps dozens of times, before feeling secure enough to go to sleep or leave the house. Is the stove off? Is the door locked? Is the alarm set?
  • fear they will harm others. Example: A man's car hits a pothole on a city street and he fears it was actually a body.
  • feel dirty and contaminated. Example: A woman is fearful of touching her baby because she might contaminate the child.
  • constantly arrange and order things. Example: A child can't go to sleep unless he lines up all his shoes correctly.
  • are excessively concerned with body imperfections -- insist on numerous plastic surgeries, or spend many, many hours a day body-building.
  • are ruled by numbers, believing that certain numbers represent good and others represent evil.
  • are excessively concerned with sin or blasphemy.

Is OCD commonly recognized by professionals?

Not nearly commonly enough. OCD is often misdiagnosed, and it is often underdiagnosed. Many people have dual disorders of OCD and schizophrenia, or OCD and bipolar disorder, but the OCD component is not diagnosed or treated. In children, parents often are aware of some anxiety or depression but not of the underlying OCD. Researchers believe OCD, anxiety disorders, Tourette's, and eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia can be triggered by some of the same chemical malfunctioning of the brain.

Is heredity a factor in OCD?

Yes. Heredity appears to be a strong factor. If you have OCD, there's a 25-percent chance that one of your immediate family members will have it. It definitely seems to run in families.

Can OCD be effectively treated?

Yes, with medication and behavior therapy. Both affect brain chemistry, which in turn affects behavior. Medication can regulate serotonin, reducing obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors.

Anafranil (clomipramine): A tricyclic antidepressant, Anafranil has been shown to be effective in treating obsessions and compulsions. The most commonly reported side effects of this medication are dry mouth, constipation, nausea, increased appetite, weight gain, sleepiness, fatigue, tremor, dizziness, nervousness, sweating, visual changes, and sexual dysfunction. There is also a risk of seizures, thought to be dose-related. People with a history of seizures should not take this medication. Anafranil should also not be taken at the same time as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).

Many of the antidepressant medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have also proven effective in treating the symptoms associated with OCD. The SSRIs most commonly prescribed for OCD are Luvox (fluvoxamine), Paxil (paroxetine), Prozac (fluoxetine), and Zoloft (sertraline).

Luvox (fluvoxamine): Common side effects of this medication include dry mouth, constipation, nausea, sleepiness, insomnia, nervousness, dizziness, headache, agitation, weakness, and delayed ejaculation.

Paxil (paroxetine): Side effects most associated with this medication include dry mouth, constipation, nausea, decreased appetite, sleepiness, insomnia, tremor, dizziness, nervousness, weakness, sweating, and sexual dysfunction.

Prozac (fluoxetine): Dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, sleepiness, insomnia, tremor, nervousness, headache, weakness, sweating, rash, and sexual dysfunction are among the more common side effects associated with this drug.

Zoloft (sertraline): Among the side effects most commonly reported while taking Zoloft are dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, sleepiness, insomnia, tremor, dizziness, agitation, sweating, and sexual dysfunction.

Celexa (Citalopram) Side effects may include dry mouth, nausea, or drowsiness .

SSRIs should never be taken at the same time as MAOIs.

How log should an individual take medication before judging its effectiveness?

Some physicians make the mistake of prescribing a medication for only three or four weeks. That really isn't long enough. Medication should be tried consistently for 10 to 12 weeks before its effectiveness can be judged.

What is behavior therapy, and can it effectively relieve symptoms of OCD?

Behavior therapy is not traditional psychotherapy. It is "exposure and response prevention," and it is effective for many people with OCD. Consumers are deliberately exposed to a feared object or idea, either directly or by imagination, and are then discouraged or prevented from carrying out the usual compulsive response. For example, a compulsive hand-washer may be urged to touch an object he or she believes is contaminated and denied the opportunity to wash for several hours. When the treatment works well, the consumer gradually experiences less anxiety from the obsessive thoughts and becomes able to refrain from the compulsive actions for extended periods of time.

Several studies suggest that medication and behavior therapy are equally effective in alleviating symptoms of OCD. About half of the consumers with this disorder improve substantially with behavior therapy; the rest improve moderately.

Will OCD symptoms go away completely with medication and behavior therapy?

Response to treatment varies from person to person. Most people treated with effective medications find their symptoms reduced by about 40 percent to 50 percent. That can often be enough to change their lives, to transform them into functioning individuals.

A few consumers find that neither treatment produces significant change, and a small number of people are fortunate to go into total remission when treated with effective medication and/or behavior therapy.


http://www.nami.org/Content/ContentGroups/Illnesses/Obsessive_Complusive_Disorder_(OCD).htm
__________________
Be nice to me, I have powers and Andrew no longer compensates me with shoes!!
Do what you feel in your heart to be right - for you'll be criticized anyway. You'll be damned if you do, and damned if you don't.--Eleanor Roosevelt
I'm all in favor of keeping dangerous weapons out of the hands of fools. Let's start with typewriters. --Frank Lloyd Wright

Everything I write is fully substantiated by my personal opinion.
Sponsored Links
  #4  
Old 01-13-06, 09:20 PM
Andi's Avatar
Andi Andi is offline
Forummarm
 

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: ?
Posts: 4,870
Blog Entries: 1
Thanks: 1,435
Thanked 7,901 Times in 2,455 Posts
Andi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond repute
NAMI Fact Sheet...Panic Disorder

Panic Disorder

What's happening?

* Imagine you've just stepped into an elevator and suddenly your heart races, your chest aches, you break out in a cold sweat and feel as if the elevator is about to crash to the ground. What's happening?

*Imagine you are driving home from the grocery store and suddenly things seem to be out of control. You feel hot flashes, things around you blur, you can't tell where you are, and you feel as if you're dying. What's happening?

What's happening is a panic attack, an uncontrollable panic response to ordinary, nonthreatening situations. Panic attacks are often an indication that a person has panic disorder.

What is panic disorder?

A person who experiences recurrent panic attacks, at least one of which leads to at least a month of increased anxiety or avoidant behavior, is said to have panic disorder. Panic disorder may also be indicated if a person experiences fewer than four panic episodes but has recurrent or constant fears of having another panic attack.

Doctors often try to rule out every other possible alternative before diagnosing panic disorder. To be diagnosed as having panic disorder, a person must experience at least four of the following symptoms during a panic attack: sweating; hot or cold flashes; choking or smothering sensations; racing heart; labored breathing; trembling; chest pains; faintness; numbness; nausea; disorientation; or feelings of dying, losing control, or losing one's mind. Panic attacks typically last about 10 minutes, but may be a few minutes shorter or longer. During the attack, the physical and emotional symptoms increase quickly in a crescendo-like way and then subside. A person may feel anxious and jittery for many hours after experiencing a panic attack.

Panic attacks can occur in anyone. Chemical or hormonal imbalances, drugs or alcohol, stress, or other situational events can cause panic attacks, which are often mistaken for heart attacks, heart disease, or respiratory problems.

What are phobias?

Phobias are irrational, involuntary, and inappropriate fears of (or responses to) ordinary situations or things. People who have phobias can experience panic attacks when confronted with the situation or object about which they feel phobic. A category of symptoms called phobic disorder falls within the broader field of anxiety disorders.

Phobias are divided into three types:

Specific (simple) phobia: an unreasonable fear of specific circumstances or objects, such as traffic jams or snakes.

Social phobia: extreme fear of looking foolish or stupid or unacceptable in public that causes people to avoid public occasions or areas.

Agoraphobia: an intense fear of feeling trapped in a situation, especially in public places, combined with an overwhelming fear of having a panic attack in unfamiliar surroundings. This word means, literally (in Greek), "fear of the marketplace."

Phobias are usually chronic (long-term), distressing disorders that keep people from ordinary activities and places. They can lead to other serious problems, such as depression. In fact, at least half of those who suffer with phobias and panic disorders also have depression. Alcoholism, loss of productivity, secretiveness, and feelings of shame and low self-esteem also occur with this illness. Some people are unable to go anywhere or do anything outside their homes without the help of others they trust.

What does it mean to "fear the fear"?

Many people with phobias or panic disorder "fear the fear," or worry about when the next attack is coming. The fear of more panic attacks can lead to a very limited life. People who have panic attacks often begin to avoid the things they think triggered the panic attack and then stop doing the things they used to do or the places they used to go.

Am I the only one?

It is estimated that 2 percent to 5 percent of Americans have panic disorder, so you are not alone if you, too have these symptoms. Usually panic disorder first strikes people in their early twenties. Severe stress, such as the death of a loved one, can bring on panic attacks.

A 1986 study by the National Institute of Mental Health showed that 5.1 percent to 12.5 percent of people surveyed had experienced phobias in the past six months. The study estimated that 24 million Americans will experience some phobias in their lifetimes.

Phobias are the leading psychiatric disorders among women of all ages. One survey showed that 4.9 percent of women and 1.8 percent of men have panic disorder, agoraphobia, or any other phobias.

What causes panic disorder?

No one really knows what causes panic disorder, but several ideas are being researched. Panic disorder seems to run in families, which suggests that it has at least some genetic basis. Some theories suggest that panic disorder is part of a more generalized anxiety in the people who have panic attacks or that severe separation anxiety can develop into panic disorder or phobias, most often agoraphobia.

Biological theories point to possible physical defects in a person's autonomic (or automatic) nervous system. General hypersensitivity in the nervous system, increased arousal, or a sudden chemical imbalance can trigger panic attacks. Caffeine, alcohol, and several other agents can also trigger these symptoms.

Is panic disorder treatable?

Recovery from panic disorder can be achieved either by taking medication or by cognitive behavioral therapy that is specific for panic disorder. Studies suggest that medication and cognitive behavioral therapy are about equally effective and the decision about which to take depends largely on the preference of the person with the panic disorder. Medication probably works a bit faster, but has more adverse side effects than cognitive behavioral therapy. Also, when successful treatment is finished, people who have had cognitive behavioral therapy tend to remain well longer than people who have taken medication. There is some evidence that the combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and medication may offer some benefits over either one alone.

Cognitive therapy is used to help people think and behave appropriately. Patients learn to make the feared object or situation less threatening as they are exposed to, and slowly get used to, whatever is so frightening to them. Family members and friends help a great deal in this process when they are supportive and encouraging

Medication is most effective when it is used as part of an overall treatment plan that includes supportive therapy. Antidepressants and antianxiety medications are the most successful medications for this disorder. Ask your doctor about these medications or others that may help you.

Healthy living habits may also help people overcome panic disorder. Exercise, a proper and balanced diet, moderate use of caffeine and alcohol, and learning how to reduce stress are all important.

Peer support is a vital part of overcoming panic disorder. Family and friends can play a significant role in the treatment process and should be informed of the treatment plan and of the ways they can be most helpful.



http://www.nami.org/Content/ContentG..._Disorder_.htm
__________________
Be nice to me, I have powers and Andrew no longer compensates me with shoes!!
Do what you feel in your heart to be right - for you'll be criticized anyway. You'll be damned if you do, and damned if you don't.--Eleanor Roosevelt
I'm all in favor of keeping dangerous weapons out of the hands of fools. Let's start with typewriters. --Frank Lloyd Wright

Everything I write is fully substantiated by my personal opinion.
  #5  
Old 01-13-06, 09:53 PM
Andi's Avatar
Andi Andi is offline
Forummarm
 

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: ?
Posts: 4,870
Blog Entries: 1
Thanks: 1,435
Thanked 7,901 Times in 2,455 Posts
Andi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond repute
NIMH Fact Sheet...GAD

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

"I always thought I was just a worrier. I'd feel keyed up and unable to relax. At times it would come and go, and at times it would be constant. It could go on for days. I'd worry about what I was going to fix for a dinner party, or what would be a great present for somebody. I just couldn't let something go.

"I'd have terrible sleeping problems. There were times I'd wake up wired in the middle of the night. I had trouble concentrating, even reading the newspaper or a novel. Sometimes I'd feel a little lightheaded. My heart would race or pound. And that would make me worry more. I was always imagining things were worse than they really were: when I got a stomachache, I'd think it was an ulcer.

"When my problems were at their worst, I'd miss work and feel just terrible about it. Then I worried that I'd lose my job. My life was miserable until I got treatment."

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is much more than the normal anxiety people experience day to day. It's chronic and fills one's day with exaggerated worry and tension, even though there is little or nothing to provoke it. Having this disorder means always anticipating disaster, often worrying excessively about health, money, family, or work. Sometimes, though, the source of the worry is hard to pinpoint. Simply the thought of getting through the day provokes anxiety.

People with GAD can't seem to shake their concerns, even though they usually realize that their anxiety is more intense than the situation warrants. Their worries are accompanied by physical symptoms, especially fatigue, headaches, muscle tension, muscle aches, difficulty swallowing, trembling, twitching, irritability, sweating, and hot flashes. People with GAD may feel lightheaded or out of breath. They also may feel nauseated or have to go to the bathroom frequently.

Individuals with GAD seem unable to relax, and they may startle more easily than other people. They tend to have difficulty concentrating, too. Often, they have trouble falling or staying asleep.

Unlike people with several other anxiety disorders, people with GAD don't characteristically avoid certain situations as a result of their disorder. When impairment associated with GAD is mild, people with the disorder may be able to function in social settings or on the job. If severe, however, GAD can be very debilitating, making it difficult to carry out even the most ordinary daily activities.

GAD affects about 4 million adult Americans1 and about twice as many women as men.2 The disorder comes on gradually and can begin across the life cycle, though the risk is highest between childhood and middle age.2 It is diagnosed when someone spends at least 6 months worrying excessively about a number of everyday problems. There is evidence that genes play a modest role in GAD.13

GAD is commonly treated with medications. GAD rarely occurs alone, however; it is usually accompanied by another anxiety disorder, depression, or substance abuse.2,4 These other conditions must be treated along with GAD.
__________________
Be nice to me, I have powers and Andrew no longer compensates me with shoes!!
Do what you feel in your heart to be right - for you'll be criticized anyway. You'll be damned if you do, and damned if you don't.--Eleanor Roosevelt
I'm all in favor of keeping dangerous weapons out of the hands of fools. Let's start with typewriters. --Frank Lloyd Wright

Everything I write is fully substantiated by my personal opinion.

Last edited by EYEFORGOT; 03-25-09 at 10:35 PM.. Reason: removed non working link
The Following 5 Users Say Thank You to Andi For This Useful Post:
DotwithADD (07-14-08), Lailey (09-11-08), Naomi88 (05-16-08), randomguy1235 (06-14-16), Vmchili27 (05-07-11)
  #6  
Old 01-13-06, 10:01 PM
Andi's Avatar
Andi Andi is offline
Forummarm
 

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: ?
Posts: 4,870
Blog Entries: 1
Thanks: 1,435
Thanked 7,901 Times in 2,455 Posts
Andi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond reputeAndi has a reputation beyond repute
NIMH Fact Sheet...Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)

"In any social situation, I felt fear. I would be anxious before I even left the house, and it would escalate as I got closer to a college class, a party, or whatever. I would feel sick at my stomach—it almost felt like I had the flu. My heart would pound, my palms would get sweaty, and I would get this feeling of being removed from myself and from everybody else.

"When I would walk into a room full of people, I'd turn red and it would feel like everybody's eyes were on me. I was embarrassed to stand off in a corner by myself, but I couldn't think of anything to say to anybody. It was humiliating. I felt so clumsy, I couldn't wait to get out.

"I couldn't go on dates, and for a while I couldn't even go to class. My sophomore year of college I had to come home for a semester. I felt like such a failure."

Social phobia, also called social anxiety disorder, involves overwhelming anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday social situations. People with social phobia have a persistent, intense, and chronic fear of being watched and judged by others and being embarrassed or humiliated by their own actions. Their fear may be so severe that it interferes with work or school, and other ordinary activities. While many people with social phobia recognize that their fear of being around people may be excessive or unreasonable, they are unable to overcome it. They often worry for days or weeks in advance of a dreaded situation.

Social phobia can be limited to only one type of situation—such as a fear of speaking in formal or informal situations, or eating, drinking, or writing in front of others—or, in its most severe form, may be so broad that a person experiences symptoms almost anytime they are around other people. Social phobia can be very debilitating—it may even keep people from going to work or school on some days. Many people with this illness have a hard time making and keeping friends.

Physical symptoms often accompany the intense anxiety of social phobia and include blushing, profuse sweating, trembling, nausea, and difficulty talking. If you suffer from social phobia, you may be painfully embarrassed by these symptoms and feel as though all eyes are focused on you. You may be afraid of being with people other than your family.

People with social phobia are aware that their feelings are irrational. Even if they manage to confront what they fear, they usually feel very anxious beforehand and are intensely uncomfortable throughout. Afterward, the unpleasant feelings may linger, as they worry about how they may have been judged or what others may have thought or observed about them.

Social phobia affects about 5.3 million adult Americans.1 Women and men are equally likely to develop social phobia.10 The disorder usually begins in childhood or early adolescence,2 and there is some evidence that genetic factors are involved.11 Social phobia often co-occurs with other anxiety disorders or depression.2,4 Substance abuse or dependence may develop in individuals who attempt to "self-medicate" their social phobia by drinking or using drugs.4,5 Social phobia can be treated successfully with carefully targeted psychotherapy or medications.

Social phobia can severely disrupt normal life, interfering with school, work, or social relationships. The dread of a feared event can begin weeks in advance and be quite debilitating.



__________________
Be nice to me, I have powers and Andrew no longer compensates me with shoes!!
Do what you feel in your heart to be right - for you'll be criticized anyway. You'll be damned if you do, and damned if you don't.--Eleanor Roosevelt
I'm all in favor of keeping dangerous weapons out of the hands of fools. Let's start with typewriters. --Frank Lloyd Wright

Everything I write is fully substantiated by my personal opinion.

Last edited by EYEFORGOT; 03-25-09 at 10:36 PM.. Reason: remove non working link
The Following 5 Users Say Thank You to Andi For This Useful Post:
db4805 (10-06-11), FroGpants (11-19-10), rombow (03-20-09), Spacemom (02-19-16), zebrachick83 (02-13-13)
  #7  
Old 03-18-09, 11:14 AM
EYEFORGOT's Avatar
EYEFORGOT EYEFORGOT is offline
can't remember diddly
 

Join Date: Jul 2004
Location: Fantasy Land
Posts: 16,175
Blog Entries: 17
Thanks: 4,218
Thanked 6,055 Times in 3,094 Posts
EYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond reputeEYEFORGOT has a reputation beyond repute
Re: NAMI Fact Sheet...Anxiety Disorders

NAMI/ by illness

This lists other illnesses and opens up a page of information for each.
__________________
Chel
"When we remember we are all mad, the mysteries disappear & life stands explained.
-Mark Twain"
The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to EYEFORGOT For This Useful Post:
adhdwptsd (05-31-11), aeon (02-28-14)
Closed Thread

Bookmarks


Currently Active Users Viewing This Thread: 1 (0 members and 1 guests)
 
Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is On
Forum Jump

Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Reference For Local Doctors Draga Pennsylvania 8 03-21-14 02:31 PM
Reference For Local Doctors Draga Michigan 4 03-25-10 01:38 PM
Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders Andrew ADD News 7 04-27-08 01:21 AM
Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders Andrew Bipolar 1 08-15-05 05:44 PM


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 04:40 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.7.4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
(c) 2003 - 2015 ADD Forums