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Old 12-24-19, 10:13 PM
mildadhd mildadhd is offline
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Comparing the human-rat brain.

This thread is meant to compare the development of the human-rat brain.

The vertebrate neuroepithelium (NEP) is the primary germinal matrix of the central nervous system (CNS). During the early embryonic development of the CNS, this distinctive tissue folds and then fuses to form the lining of the fluid-filled ventricles of the neural tube posteriorly and the brain vesicles anteriorly. Initially, the NEP consists solely of stockbuilding, proliferating precursor cells of neurons and neuroglia. Later during embryonic development, the differentiating neurons and neuroglia leave the NEP to form the specific structures of the spinal cord and brain. The size of the NEP and the duration of its stockbuilding activity is a major factor in determining absolute and relative sizes of different brain regions.
The human neocortex, a principal organ of our intelligence, is distinguished in comparison with most other mammals not only by its large absolute volume but also by its large size relative to the hindbrain. The above photos illustrate the early embryonic origins of that difference in rats and humans. Initially, expansion of the neocortical NEP lags behind the midbrain/hindbrain NEPs but as the latter begin to shrink the neocortical NEP grows larger. In RATS (right column), the neocortical NEP EXPANDS FOR ONLY 6 DAYS before young neurons start migrating into the cortical plate (the site that will differentiate into the cortical gray matter). The expansion of the neocortical NEP relative to that of the midbrain and hindbrain is not pronounced. In HUMANS, THE NEOCORTICAL NEP EXPANDS FOR SEVERAL WEEKS before the cortical plate emerges. Recent studies suggest that the expansion of the neocortical NEP, the decline of the neocortical NEP, the migration of neurons into the cortical plate, and their phases of differentiation is regulated by a cascade of gene expression and transcription factors (Pax6, Emx1, Emx2, Otx2, Ngn1, Ngn2, and others).

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Last edited by mildadhd; 12-24-19 at 10:35 PM..
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