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Old 12-04-13, 07:33 PM
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Ongoing increases in ADHD diagnoses in the USA

http://www.jaacap.com/article/S0890-...594-7/fulltext

Trends in the Parent-Report of Health Care Provider-Diagnosed and Medicated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: United States, 2003–2011

Some Key Points:

Quote:
In 2011, 11% of children/adolescents aged 4 to 17 years had ever received an ADHD diagnosis (6.4 million children). Among those with a history of ADHD diagnosis, 83% were reported as currently having ADHD (8.8%); 69% of children with current ADHD were taking medication for ADHD (6.1%, 3.5 million children). A parent-reported history of ADHD increased by 42% from 2003 to 2011. Prevalence of a history of ADHD, current ADHD, medicated ADHD, and moderate/severe ADHD increased significantly from 2007 estimates. Prevalence of medicated ADHD increased by 28% from 2007 to 2011.

Approximately 2 million more U.S. children/adolescents aged 4 to 17 years had been diagnosed with ADHD in 2011, compared to 2003. More than two-thirds of those with current ADHD were taking medication for treatment in 2011. This suggests an increasing burden of ADHD on the U.S. health care system. Efforts to further understand ADHD diagnostic and treatment patterns are warranted.

The demographic and state-based patterns for current ADHD were generally consistent with those observed for ever-diagnosed ADHD, although current ADHD estimates were approximately 20% to 25% lower than ever-diagnosed estimates. State-based estimates of current ADHD ranged from 4.2% in Nevada to 14.6% in Arkansas and 14.8% in Kentucky.

The epidemiological profile for ADHD diagnosis and treatment continues to evolve. Based on parent-reported indicators of health care provider–diagnosed ADHD diagnosis and treatment, more than 1 in 10 school-aged children (11%) had received an ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider by 2011, representing more than 6.4 million children nationally. Nearly 1 in 5 high school boys and 1 in 11 high school girls had been diagnosed with ADHD.

The parent-reported indicators have not been clinically validated; however, a recent analysis indicated that parent-reported survey data produced similar estimates as those from insurance claims data, providing evidence of convergent validity for parent-reported ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider.
So previous trends of an increase in rate of diagnosis, and of substantial geographical differences in incidence continue.
Both of these trends are hard to reconcile with predominantly genetic causation of ADHD.

I borrow here from the article that Peripheral quoted on Play and ADHD:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242642/
Quote:
In sum, the increasing diagnosis of ADHD may reflect, in part, a cultural illness rather than any biological disorder (Panksepp, 1998b). This concept may help us understand why more than 10 million American children are presently being chronically medicated with psychostimulants, at the highest rate of any country in the world.
This is not conclusive of course, but is of significant concern given suggestions that psychostimulants may suppress playful behaviour.
However it does tie in the the epidemiological evidence of increasing rates of diagnosis and treatment in the US.
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