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  #1  
Old 01-15-14, 12:26 AM
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Open discussion of Brain Development (Split from Brain development)

Quote:
Originally Posted by Amtram View Post
\


When[/i] that thing went wrong can often be determined by the extent of the abnormality. Someone who's born with malformed fingers obviously took a hit later in fetal development than someone with no arms, for example. People tend to forget that the brain is an organ, too, just like any other part of the body, and develops and grows in an organized fashion during gestation just like everything else. So if a fetus' brain is going to develop differently from normal, knowing the timeline of development can help pinpoint when the problem occurred...
I agree.

Specifying the approx age of development, is extremely important, when discussing possible indivdual origins timelines.

Origins of AD(H)D occur before the age of 7.

That means we can rule out anything that occurs after the age of 7.

As the possible origins of ADD.



All ages are important.

But the origins of ADD occur before the age of seven, in the lives of the ADDers.


Everything that happens after the age of 7, are also extremely important to understand for personal treatment, but not the origin of ADD.




Peripheral Laymans


Quote:
From OP Link

Quote:
Brain development continues for an extended period postnatally. The brain increases in size by four-fold during the preschool period, reaching approximately 90% of adult volume by age 6 (Reiss et al. 1996; Iwasaki et al. 1997; Courchesne et al. 2000; Kennedy and Dehay 2001; Paus et al. 2001; Kennedy et al. 2002; Lenroot and Giedd 2006).

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Old 01-15-14, 11:55 AM
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Re: Brain Development

This paper focuses on the physical development of the brain in the prenatal phase and the first year following. Formation of the primary and essential physical brain and neuronal pathways is a completely different issue from psychological development.
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Old 01-15-14, 12:18 PM
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Re: Brain Development

Quote:
Originally Posted by Amtram View Post
This paper focuses on the physical development of the brain in the prenatal phase and the first year following. Formation of the primary and essential physical brain and neuronal pathways is a completely different issue from psychological development.
I got the quote, from the OP link "paper" you posted?


Quote:
Brain development continues for an extended period postnatally. The brain increases in size by four-fold during the preschool period, reaching approximately 90% of adult volume by age 6 (Reiss et al. 1996; Iwasaki et al. 1997; Courchesne et al. 2000; Kennedy and Dehay 2001; Paus et al. 2001; Kennedy et al. 2002; Lenroot and Giedd 2006).









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Old 01-15-14, 01:08 PM
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Re: Brain Development

From the OP paper (link)

Quote:
This paper will review some of the major events that contribute to the development of the human brain from its early embryonic state through adolescence.....During the early postnatal period, level of connectivity throughout the developing brain far exceeds that of adults (Innocenti and Price 2005). This exuberant connectivity is gradually pruned back via competitive processes that are influenced by the experience of the organism. These early experience dependent processes underlie the well-documented plasticity and capacity for adaptation that is the hallmark of early brain development
Note that postnatal "connectivity", "far exceeds that of adults", development rate, amount, and sensitivity, are much greater in early life. (during critical period of development)



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Old 01-15-14, 02:01 PM
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Re: Brain Development

I could be wrong, but it seems that people tend not to want to learn about post natal and early childhood development, in regards to AD(H)D?

I understand that people want not to cause undeserved guilt on the primary care givers.

My point is that if a child is born with a extra hypersensitive ADD temperament, understanding what shapes early brain development, especially for a child with a hypersensitive temperament, and making accommodations, may lessen severity of ADD and/or commorbidities.

Specifics depends on individual ADDers circumstances.

Post natal early life development is just to important to ignore, in my opinion.





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Old 01-15-14, 04:17 PM
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Re: Brain Development

Human brain development is a protracted process that begins in the third gestational week (GW) with the differentiation of the neural progenitor cells and extends at least through late adolescence, arguably throughout the lifespan. The processes that contribute to brain development range from the molecular events of gene expression to environmental input. Critically, these very different levels and kinds of processes interact to support the ongoing series of events that define brain development. Both gene expression and environmental input are essential for normal brain development, and disruption of either can fundamentally alter neural outcomes. But neither genes nor input is prescriptive or determinative of outcome. Rather brain development is aptly characterized as a complex series of dynamic and adaptive processes that operate throughout the course of development to promote the emergence and differentiation of new neural structures and functions. These processes operate within highly constrained and genetically organized, but constantly changing contexts that, over time, support the emergence of the complex and dynamic structure of the human brain (Waddington 1939; Morange 2001; Stiles 2008).

This paper will review some of the major events that contribute to the development of the human brain from its early embryonic state through adolescence. It begins by examining the foundational changes that occur during the embryonic period, which in humans extends through the eighth week post conception (gestational week eight, or GW8). By the end of the embryonic period the rudimentary structures of the brain and central nervous system are established and the major compartments of the central and peripheral nervous systems are defined (see Fig. 1). The ensuing period of fetal development extends through the end of gestation. During this time there is rapid growth and elaboration of both cortical and subcortical structures, including the rudiments of the major fiber pathways (Kostovic and Jovanov-Milosevic 2006); (Kostovic and Jovanov-Milosevic 2006). Changes in the gross morphology of the prenatal neural system are underpinned by changes occurring at the cellular level. Neuron production in humans begins on embryonic day 42. E42, i.e. 42 days post conception (Bystron et al. 2008; Stiles 2008) and is largely complete by midgestation. As they are produced neurons migrate to different brain areas where they begin to make connections with other neurons establishing rudimentary neural networks. By the end of the prenatal period major fiber pathways, including the thalamocortical pathway, are complete.



__________
Brain Development in the Postnatal Period

Though the production and migration of neurons are largely prenatal events, proliferation and migration of glial progenitors continues for an extended period after birth, and the differentiation and maturation of these cells continue throughout childhood. The full scope of neuron-glia interactions is still not fully defined, but it is clear that these interactions play an important role in functional organization of neural circuits during postnatal life. Importantly, estimates of the developmental time course in humans of the postnatal processes outlined below are derived by extrapolation from data acquired in other species, often rodents, and from very limited human postmortem material. Unfortunately, the result is much remaining uncertainty about the temporal extent of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and regression during the postnatal period in humans, and about the timing of these processes relative to each other. In vivo brain imaging of children is providing important clues about the time course of age-related biological alterations in the brain, and provides an opportunity to link these changes to evolving behavior.

__________
The Role of Experience in Brain Development

The events of the prenatal period serve to establish the core compartments of the developing nervous system from the spinal cord and hindbrain to the cortical structures of the telencephalon. These early events also provide initial patterning within each of the major subdivisions of the brain, but this early patterning, particularly in the neocortex, is both underspecified and malleable. The mature organization of the neocortex emerges over a protracted time during the postnatal period, and it requires diverse forms of input. Some of this input arises from within the organism in the form of molecular signaling and cross-regional activity. But the specific experience of the individual organism also plays an essential role in establishing the mature organization of the neocortex. The development of normal brain organization requires input via all of the major sensory systems. When specific aspects of input are lacking, alternative patterns of brain organization can and do emerge. These alternative patterns of organization reflect the effects of altered profiles of neural competition and capture a fundamental property of mammalian brain development, the capacity for plastic adaptation.
The Role of Input on Brain Development

Greenough introduced the term “experience expectant” development to capture the idea that the early experience of the organism plays an essential role in normal brain development, particularly in the early postnatal period (Greenough et al. 1987). Although cortical patterning begins in the embryonic period it remains malleable for an extended period of time. Typical, expected, postnatal experience is necessary for the emergence of normal patterns of neocortical organization. When that input is lacking brain areas develop differently, and the specific pattern of development reflects the kinds of input that the organism actually received. At later ages, the developing—and even the mature—nervous system continues to require input to acquire new knowledge and to develop functional neural systems. Greenough has termed this later phase of development “experience dependent” learning. These two important constructs suggest that throughout development experience plays an essential role in establishing and refining neural organization in ways that allow the organism to adapt to the contingences of the world in which it lives. Studies that systematically manipulate the specific experience of the young organism provide insight into the dynamic and adaptive nature of brain development.

__________
Summary and Conclusions

Over the past three decades there has been tremendous progress in our understanding of the basic principles of neural development. This progress has changed our fundamental models of how brains develop. Strongly deterministic models have given way to more dynamic and interactive models anchored in the process of development, itself. As suggested by the examples presented in this paper, the processes that underlie and guide brain development involve the ongoing interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Brains do not develop normally in the absence of critical genetic signaling and they do not develop normally in the absence of essential environmental input. Rather, at each point in development, organism intrinsic and environmental factors interact to support the increasingly complex and elaborate structures and functions of the brain. During the embryologic period the interactive processes are most prominent at the level of cell-cell interactions where gene expression in one population of cells generates molecular signals that alter the developmental course of another population of cells. However, even during this earliest period, interactions involving factors in the external environment also play essential roles in the development of the embryonic brain. During the fetal and postnatal periods, organism intrinsic factors continue to play a critical role in development, but across this extended period a wide array of factors in the external world influence the course of brain development in increasingly prominent ways.

Although nothing in neural development appears to be “predetermined”, the process of development is nonetheless orderly and follows very regular patterns over time. The regularity of developmental process arises from constraints imposed by both genetic and environmental factors. Genes provide the templates for creating particular proteins that are essential to the developmental process; the environment provides essential input that shapes and influences the direction of the emerging neural networks. A third essential constraint arises from the fact that the developmental process unfolds over time. The integrity of the developmental process depends absolutely upon the availability of the right neural elements appearing at the appropriate moment in developmental time. Often the emergence of a new element depends upon developmental events that immediately precede its appearance.


For example, the differentiation of the neural progenitor cells along the axial midline of the neural plate during gastrulation sets the stage for the formation of the ventricular zone during neurulation. Furthermore, at each point in developmental time the organism has both a state and a history that limit which factors can influence its development. Visual and auditory signals have little effect on the gastrulating embryo, but both are essential for the typical development of vision and audition in the newborn. The constructs of “progressive differentiation” and “progressive commitment” capture important aspects of the temporal nature of brain development and can account for the regularities that are observed (Stiles 2008). At all levels of the neural system, progressive differentiation of specific elements and structures coupled with progressive commitment of those elements to functional systems appear to be the governing principles of brain development.


I think it's covered. As much as it can be within the strictures of the topic.
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Old 01-16-14, 11:00 PM
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Re: Brain Development

Quote:
Originally Posted by Amtram View Post
This paper focuses on the physical development of the brain in the prenatal phase and the first year following. Formation of the primary and essential physical brain and neuronal pathways is a completely different issue from psychological development.

Amtram,

What is the difference?


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Old 01-16-14, 11:41 PM
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Re: Brain Development

Read the paper. Nothing about psychology in it. It's a completely different area of study. Same reason they don't teach physics in music theory class.
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Old 01-17-14, 12:50 PM
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Re: Brain Development

You can't really control all of it. Most of the prenatal development is determined by genetics. Postnatal environment is not entirely controlled by parents, and the effect of the environment is going to be mitigated by the strengths and vulnerabilities of the brain the child is born with. All we can do is try our best.

One thing that was poking around my thoughts last night is lissancephaly. It's primarily a genetic condition, but it can be brought about by a small number of other factors, like hypoxia early in gestation. It's essentially a smooth brain. We start off with smooth brains, and develop the folds and bumps in the womb. Most of our thinking and learning happens in the cerebral cortex, which is the surface area. All of those wrinkles and bumps are covered in it. So, the more bumpy your brain is, the more surface area, and the more higher thought functions you have.

Another was that we're born with all the neurons we're ever going to have. . .it says that in the paper, too, and mentions that what happens when we learn and experience is neuronal migration. Our neurons just move and connect in more ways. What I found while poking around reading about memory, though, is that neuron cells have something in common with fat cells. . .they can increase or decrease in size! Unfortunately, unlike fat cells, they can't increase in number.

Of course, that might not be the worst thing in the world. In the last trimester of prenatal development, there's a significant neuronal die-off, and research is finding that this doesn't happen in the case of autism. So children with ASDs are born with brains that have too many neurons, and are slightly larger than they should be. Size matters, but bigger isn't necessarily better.
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Old 01-18-14, 01:13 AM
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Re: Brain Development

I understand the prenatal brain and post natal brain, to be different stages of maturity.

The brain never stops maturing.

For first 9 months, after birth, the human infant's brain, grows at the same rate, as it did, during the 9 months before birth.

Brain development, certainly, is not complete before birth.

I found the information in the OP link, very interesting.



In addition.


We are also born with 7 primary emotional systems as well.

SEEKING, FEAR, RAGE, LUST, CARE, GRIEF, PLAY

These basic primary emotional circuits are genetic as well.

Basic primary emotions plus experience, equals, more mature, higher congnitive capabilities.


Emotional consciousness is larger at birth, than cognitive consciousness.






Laymans

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Old 01-18-14, 12:20 PM
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Re: Brain Development

The brain does, however, stop growing. This paper is strictly about the structure. It may change, pathways activate, deactivate, or re-route, but you are born with all the brain cells you're ever going to have.
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Old 01-18-14, 02:52 PM
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Re: Brain Development

Quote:
Brain development continues for an extended period postnatally.

Quote:
The brain increases in size by four-fold during the preschool period, reaching approximately 90% of adult volume by age 6 (Reiss et al. 1996; Iwasaki et al. 1997; Courchesne et al. 2000; Kennedy and Dehay 2001; Paus et al. 2001; Kennedy et al. 2002; Lenroot and Giedd 2006).
Quote:
structural changes in both the major gray and white matter compartments continue through childhood and adolescence,

Amtram,

Are we discussing the systems of the whole brain, and quotes from the OP link ?

You didn't specify in the OP, that you wanted to discuss specifically, the amount and density of dopamine receptors at birth?

Is that the question you wanted to discuss, in the OP?

If you could address, what you want the OP topic to be, I would be happy to focus my replies more specifically.

I haven't disagreed with the OP post link.

In addition.

I didn't read about the formation of lower subcortical 7 different basic primary emotional systems, that originate in the lower brain brain areas.

SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, GRIEF, PLAY, which are genetic.

These basics primary emotion systems are also genetically established at birth.

For example.

The SEEKING system, which involve dopamine, extends from the PAG (brain stem) to the OFC (frontal lobe).

I find it much easier to understand early brain development, primarily, from the ground up, then top down.

So much easier to understand.




I agree that the number of dopamine receptors are established at birth, but like muscles need healthy exercise, to work properly.




Also prenatal distress affecting both mother and infant, especially in the third trimester, can lower the number and density of dopamine receptors, infants will have at birth. (Temperament?)





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Old 01-18-14, 03:34 PM
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Re: Brain Development

Another question, do all the dopamine receptors established at birth, during prenatal development, survive early post natal development?

I think, at least partly, would depend on experience.






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Old 01-18-14, 04:20 PM
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Re: Brain Development

From the opening post link.


Quote:
..structural changes in both the major gray and white matter compartments continue through childhood and adolescence, and these changes in structure parallel changes in functional organization that are also reflected in behavior. During the early postnatal period, level of connectivity throughout the developing brain far exceeds that of adults (Innocenti and Price 2005). This exuberant connectivity is gradually pruned back via competitive processes that are influenced by the experience of the organism. These early experience dependent processes underlie the well-documented plasticity and capacity for adaptation that is the hallmark of early brain development.


Now this is the timeline of development I think we should be focusing on, especially before 4.

With the reaction of a infant hypersensitive temperament in mind.






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Old 01-18-14, 04:31 PM
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Re: Brain Development

No, synapses can be destroyed and (eventually) regenerated. Studies on people who used MDMA and destroyed their serotonin receptors showed the beginnings of regeneration 15 years later. It's a very, very slow process. However, while the paper touches on the development of neurotransmitters, it's more of an outline of the development of the gray and white matter of the brain and the establishment of the major neuronal pathways. . .the cognitive "highways" of the brain, as it were.

What I'm trying to get across is that the physical growth of the organ of the brain is important to look at in the absence of other factors. It's like the intro course to everything else. If you try to introduce other ideas to it, or jump past the basics without examining them, you're muddying the waters. This paper isn't even the most basic you can get, I just thought it was important to know how the brain grew from start to finish so that we could understand that something that interrupted the brain's physical development at one stage could have massive implications for development at later stages because there's an order in which it happens in each and every one of us.

In fact, there are even more complexities in the physical development that need to be considered before we make assumptions on emotional regulation or dysregulation in individuals. The cortex alone has six layers, each with different physical components and functions, that are further divided by their location on the brain, and whether they cover gyri or sulci (bumps or valleys - my personal mnemonic is "sulk" for sulci, where you hide yourself deep away from everyone. YMMV in whether this helps you remember. Gyri are the wavy parts on top that look like an illustration of gyration. Again, YMMV.)

Since we know quite a bit about which areas of the brain control which cognitive, behavioral, and even emotional functions, understanding the structures of the brain helps us in knowing what might be causing a problem and where to look for it. While there can be a lot of human variation in psychological resistances and vulnerabilities, there's a much more direct connection between cause and effect when you're looking at the physical brain.
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