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Old 10-27-10, 01:01 PM
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Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

It is widely accepted that ADHD is a neurological deficit affecting the pre-frontal cortex and impairing executive function. This is the standing scientific consensus, supported by 50 years of research. While the details of the exact nature of the deficit and of its behavioral results are still undergoing research (and likely will be for some time), that the disorder is a biological entity is indisputable and in many cases the only thing that adds validity to an otherwise "trivial" disorder.

Many people have "come out" with their ADHD only to be met with that age old chorus, "ADHD isn't real, it's just __insert dismissal here__." The biological model has overcome this problem as it demonstrates that ADHD is truly, incontrovertibly real. Some models threaten this belief, such as models that promote ADHD as an advantage, as it allows people to dismiss the impairments caused by ADHD as personal faults on the part of the individual with the disorder.

Some also believe that the neurobiological model automatically confers a curse of negative thinking and stereotype threat on the head of the individual with ADHD. Some people promote the idea of propagating happy fantasies among children with the disorder so as not to damage their self-esteem with a disability model of their condition. These people often believe that disability automatically causes an individual to be doomed to living their lives in unhappiness. One might think that these people believe that by "thinking positively" they can make the negative symptoms disappear!

Indeed there is a threat that individuals with ADHD might not be able to overcome the diagnosis. This is especially true of adults who are diagnosed later in life, as it is my experience that children are relatively indifferent to the idea that they have a disorder, at least until they hit the teenage years. For the most part, the nature of the disability is not made evident to them at such a young age, and perhaps it is that they are incapable of considering their plight that allows them to soldier on so resiliently. Some people would promote instead telling fables to these children to ensure that they never have the problem of being "disabled" by the facts surrounding their diagnosis.

I do not believe that the diagnosis and that the neurobiological model must necessarily impair people. It is important to empower people to take control of their lives and overcome their conditions. I am not alone in this stance. James Ochoa is a licensed professional counselor and executive director of The Life Empowerment Center. In January, an article by Ochoa was published in Counseling Today, a professional magazine published by the American Counseling Association, of which I am a member.

Ochoa discusses the idea of empowering individuals through helping them overcome what he terms "emotional distress syndrome."

Quote:
Originally Posted by James Ochoa
Most adults are capable of handling a significant amount of daily stress. But because the neurological differences and behavioral characteristics of ADHD are chronic and lifelong, one’s emotional distress tends to increase to such a level that it becomes a syndrome, akin to the chronic emotional distress present in cases of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD.) As a result of ADHD, individuals live their entire lives under chronic low-grade distress, which can negatively affect their ability to reach their potential, feel good about themselves and create the resilience and stamina necessary to thrive in today’s world.
ADHD can cause significant distress in individuals with the condition through their inability to cope with their behavioral problems such as their inability to function "normally" in classrooms and workplaces. However, Ochoa does not see the solution as rejecting the neurobiological model of ADHD, which cannot be dismissed due to the large body of evidence behind it. Instead, Ochoa promotes personalized exercises to promote one overcoming the "underactive neurology of a client's prefrontal cortex."

Quote:
Originally Posted by James Ochoa
One of my goals as a therapist is to address the emotional distress syndrome by taking clients beyond a diagnostic understanding of ADHD. I educate them on how ADHD affects their lives
and help them personalize lifelong strategies to cope with their challenges. This education and strategy development allows clients to better understand the basis of their emotional distress and dramatically lessens their anxiety.

The rote strategies routinely given to those diagnosed with ADHD have a
tendency to become mere exercises in futility. Without a personalized approach, it is very likely that clients will disconnect from these techniques, putting them at further risk of adding to their emotional distress. The personalization factor is vital in helping clients create their own unique strategies, structures and routines.

Personalized strategies can be as small as choosing a roller ball pen because of the way the ink flow feels or as large as hiring an executive assistant to help manage the underactive neurology of a client’s prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain necessary in planning, prioritizing and evaluating.
Using a positive psychology model may work for some people, but in many cases their emotional stress will prevent them from being able to accurately employ the positive thinking necessary. One solution will not fit everyone, nor will most attempts at simply "willing away" the symptoms. It is not possible to apply a single strategy to people with ADHD and expect it to work well for everyone.

Spreading lies and misinformation about the disorder is likely to prevent one from successfully overcoming it. If we are to lie to people and tell them that they truly have a gift and an advantage, we imply that their failures and shortcomings are moral faults, an inability to capitalize on their gift. This is much akin to telling a child of average intelligence that they are a genius who cannot do calculus because they aren't trying hard enough, or telling a person of normal stature that they can't lift 500lbs because they aren't trying hard enough (put your back into it!). Educating people with ADHD about the true nature of their condition puts them in a position to empower themselves and take control of their lives by becoming more connected to themselves.

Quote:
Originally Posted by James Ochoa
development In addition to education and personalized strategies, character development is potentially the most
critical long-term issue for clients to address. Character development encompasses self-esteem and self-identity, the two pillars from which clients tap the courage, confidence and risk-taking ability needed to reach their potential.

The emotional distress that adults with ADHD experience is a direct stressor on these pillars. If your clients have been viewed as being impulsive and unreliable, or as individuals who come up with wild ideas and never finish tasks, then they have likely received negative feedback from others. This puts your clients at much greater risk of having an interrupted sense of esteem and identity.

Your ADHD clients may have grown up not loving or believing in themselves and not recognizing their value in the world. If this feeling state carries over into adulthood, they will tend to lack the confidence, courage and ability to take the risks necessary to reach their potential. What evolves out of “being different,” more times than not, is ADHD’s emotional distress syndrome.
Ochoa then goes on to promote the use of EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) for overcoming the emotional burdens associated with the ADHD. I will not comment on this because it is not considered a mainstream treatment, but it may be something to look into for those burdened with their emotional feelings of lacking value.

Quote:
Originally Posted by James Ochoa
As clients begin to restructure their lives, understand their neurology and gain insight into who they can become in the next five to 10 years, a transformational shift will start to occur. This growth will inevitably create some periods of disruption, so be cognizant of the level of nurture and encouragement your clients will require. This support needs to be deeply rooted in unconditional love and unconditional positive regard.

The key is to empower clients to create a stronger connection to themselves that will continue to develop naturally. Once clients are empowered, a diagnosis of ADHD is no longer a sign of dysfunction. Instead, this empowerment provides clients with a better understanding of how to live fully and reach their incredible potential within the beautiful chaos and intensity of their lives.
Empowering clients through accurate education about the nature of their disorders and helping them to understand and connect with who they are is an effective and demonstrated strategy which helps clients become more than simply a disorder statistic. Through propagating fantasies we may achieve similar results, this is not yet demonstrated, but a key to helping those with ADHD is to give them power by giving them accurate knowledge of their condition and helping them find themselves through the chaos of their disorder.

As a counselor, I generally promote a developmental model of the mind. To me, then, this idea of promoting empowerment through education resonates as extremely useful. We are who we are because of developmental influences, including those influences which come from within (such as neurological deficits). We cannot deny these things and still be who we are, we cannot simply wish away the reality of those things that have influenced our development. What we can do, however, is promote knowledge and understanding of ourselves such that we can guide our development towards a healthier, happier lifestyle; one where we accept who we are and act according to that, rather than deluding ourselves with happy fantasies and putting our fingers in our ears going "nanana I am fine!"

Empowerment is a key to overcoming this disorder, and developing personalized techniques to help ourselves is another, and a branch of this empowerment. It is not necessary to rely on fictions or pretend we have gifts where we do not - and in fact in many cases this may be damaging. Instead, promoting knowledge - knowledge of the condition and knowledge of ourselves, should be the goal in treating this disorder.
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Old 10-27-10, 02:14 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

All that's required to resolve the problems which ADDers face is a mechanistic understanding of the nonADD and ADD mind (~that is~ of the precise nature of the difference between the nonADD and ADD minds).

ADHD isn't a gift (in the usual sense which this term is used)
and
ADHD isn't a disorder (in the usual sense in which this term is used) -
- it's
(treat what follows in this colour as a Hypothesis if you wish)
simply a change for the better (a greater complexity (infra-structurally) of mind whose advantage is only expressed if the mind is filled
(though which
(accordingly - because of its more complex internal structure)
is harder to fill)) ... ...

- a greater complexity (infra-structurally) of mind which is stuck in a society which has been shaped by a lesser complexity of mind.

So ... ...

- A tendency towards disorder if the child ADDer does not encounter a form of education which is suitable to the ADD learning style.

- A tendency towards disorder if the educated ADDer attempts to 'make it' in a society with rules set by nonADDers.

- The best we can do is to evade disorder by re-shaping society along fair lines.

~*~

One might consider the evolutionary advantage of ADHD as a weighty kick in the ADDer's (of now) face; ADD (if 'lucky' enough to have stumbled upon an education which works) - feels - like being tasked with cleaning up after a horrendous party to which you were (of course) not invited - wouldn't though have turned up even if you were ... ... ...

The evolutionary advantage is only (can only, will only (in ~ 100 years time?) be) seen on a species level.

At the individual level - and especially in the transition - ADD is no fun whatsoever.

~*~

The interesting aspect of this idea (which belongs to ADDF:Stabile) is that it addresses (explains away) mental disorder on the level of the mental structure which gives rise to mind; it's not the usual 'neurological fudge' of attempting to clean your virus riddled Windows XP box by inserting a brand new Hard Disk Drive.
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Old 10-27-10, 10:45 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

Before anyone advances the idea that sometimes it's better to believe a lie if the lie is useful I'd like to point out that building the foundation of your psyche around a lie never ends well. http://lesswrong.com/lw/uy/dark_side_epistemology/

"Tell a lie and the truth is forever after your enemy"
What is true is already so.
Owning up to it doesn't make it worse.
Not being open about it doesn't make it go away.
And because it's true, it is what is there to be interacted with.
Anything untrue isn't there to be lived.
People can stand what is true,
for they are already enduring it.

—<cite>Eugene Gendlin</cite>
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Old 10-27-10, 11:14 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

I like this. It acknowledges that knowing what is going on actually helps. And, so far, this has actually been working out to me as much as it can at this stage.
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Old 10-28-10, 12:27 AM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

KM, thanks for posting this. In the posts I have seen from you in other threads, you have made this point, but usually in the heat of debate your position struck me as somewhat mean-spirited.

The path to living a better life comes from a place of truth, but without compassion, telling someone exactly how screwed up they are seems cruel, especially if thus truth is not accompanied by some glimmer of hope that something can be done about it However, what you describe is more a process of helping someone find their way and providing frank feedback along the way.

To me, there is no greater gift than someone telling honestly what they think of you, even if the truth is painful. The difference between the truth being painful but helpful versus cruel is the compassion of the person delivering the truth.

Something I am curious about. Is the goal of therapy, as you conceptualize it, to approximate neurotypical function, or to figure out how to function in the world without ruffling too many feathers? Are there any redeeming traits of the ADHD disorder that may be considered useful? For example, hyperfocus serves me well in certain circumstances, but it takes a lot of discipline to let go of something and move on.
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Old 10-28-10, 01:39 AM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

My personal philosophy towards therapy is to help the individual develop into being the best individual they can be, and to "actualize their potential." Whatever that means, right?

The idea is that everyone is someone of value and worth. We are all humans and this comes with a certain dignity and grace and value that is unarguably there. It's innate to us. We also all have skills and talents and abilities. I am not so naive as to promote the idea that everyone has something they are great at, or better than others at, because this is simply not true - not everyone can be the best at something. And that's fine. The goal of therapy, for me, is to help people actualize who they are.

So, does this mean to make them as close to neurotypical as possible? No, this is not necessarily who they are. Do I believe that neurotypical function is an ideal? Not necessarily. Frankly I dislike the term neurotypical and am not fond of the neurodiversity movement in general, so I've never thought about it in these terms.

To make case examples to illustrate a rather amorphous point, let's take a person with autism: will this person ever function "neurotypically?" No. He or she cannot. It is biologically impossible for him or her to do so. It's not "in his or her genes." But this is a person of value who can make an impression on his or her community. He or she has things to offer to others, even if that thing is so subtle or "meaningless" as working at a menial program for example.

If the best a person can become is a gas station attendant, then the goal of therapy is to help them become the best gas station attendant they can be. If there is a schizophrenic in my future office, our goal will not be to become "normal," but rather to reduce the negative and emphasize the positive. Perhaps this person can write, or perhaps he or she nothing special about him or her and he or she can do nothing more than cope with the schizophrenia as best as he or she can while trying to "fit in" with society. Either way, these are admirable goals and my job as a counselor will be to help him or her actualize him or herself and achieve his or her realistic goals as successfully as possible.

I have bipolar disorder. I will always have to take medicine and I will always have a shifty mood. This is who I am. But this does not rule me, and while it is part of me, I strive to be the best bipolar person with ADHD as possible - I strive to overcome my deficits and do the best at what I do. Right now, that's studying and working as a pharmacy technician. I try to be the best pharmacy technician and student I can be, and that's what my therapeutic goal is.

That is, of course, after dealing with more pressing issues such as finding an identity and so on, because finding an identity is the first step towards actualization. Many people with psychiatric conditions have been marginalized and derided their whole lives. They lack a concrete sense of who they are because they have never been affirmed positively. This is especially true of people with juvenile onset disorders. These people need to determine who it is they are in a more meaningful way than simply "I am a person with ADHD" or whatever. I can confidently say, after a year of successful therapy and a lot of medication, "I am Keith." And it is my goal to be the best Keith I can be. It is my goal for my clients to help them be the best people they can be. Does this mean to approximate neurotypical-ness? In some cases, yes. In some cases that is the goal - to reduce negative behaviors and encourage positive social behaviors that improve one's ability to relate to the world.


As to the second part of your question, no. I do not believe there are any redeeming traits of ADHD that may be considered useful. Hyperfocus is questionable as to whether it even exists, and it is my personal opinion that much of what people call hyperfocus is not an ability to focus on one thing intently but more of an inability to focus on everything they need to focus on. It's a detriment to "normal" functioning. There is no evidence for any other benefits to the ADHD syndrome that I know of. One especially common claim is that people with ADHD are more creative, better problem solvers, and so on. This is simply not true, and I have done a lot of research in this area to refute these ideas on these forums.

Were evidence to arise that ADHD did have positive characteristics, I would encourage individuals with ADHD to nurture these characteristics.

There is evidence that people with bipolar disorder are more creative for example than the general population (a fact I learned on these forums, being refuted handily in an argument by a body of research and subsequently changing my stance, as is necessary for a scholar to do when confronted with new information), and I would encourage bipolar patients to nurture their creativity if they are so lucky as to be one of the few who has been graced with such. This is the only example of a disorder having a positive characteristic I can think of, and I would not go so far as to call it a "gift" because, well, it comes with an extremely disabling "curse" just the same. At best perhaps it is a monkey's paw of bipolar disorder.

I think I've taken to rambling, so I'll stop there pending further questions to add clarification.



By the way, where have you been the past few years? The forum needs more posters of your caliber.
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Old 10-28-10, 02:14 AM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

Quote:
Originally Posted by oblivio View Post
Are there any redeeming traits of the ADHD disorder that may be considered useful?
New evidence may emerge for something like that sure, but is really so soul crushing if a trait that you have is unilaterally bad in every way?

Herpes doesn't confer any benefits, neither does hayfever. Sure they suck, but it doesn't mean that you're a waste of a human being because of it.

ADHD is an obstacle, no doubt about. It doesn't mean that you're doomed to live a ****ty meaningless life. Helen Keller had a worse deal than I do, and look at her!
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Old 10-28-10, 12:21 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

Keith, I like a lot of the sentiments expressed in your first post, regardless of what I might think about the treatment the writer is recommending. Empowerment, for me, came from discovering what parts of my behaviors and thinking patterns were inherent, and no longer spending so much time and effort trying and failing to work against them.

Just for a real generic example, I spent tons of time and money on books and programs to improve my memory. None of them worked, because they required a sustained, conscious effort that is beyond my capabilities. After I realized that was integral to my ADD and couldn't be changed, I switched strategies. I tell people I meet that I'll forget their names at least three times before I remember it, so just bear with me. I tell people to give me a chance to write something down, send me emails, feel free to remind me when I promise to do something, because without reminders like that, I'll forget. Don't feel bad about bugging me - I actually appreciate it. Instead of trying to learn some arbitrary mnemonic system, I try to work with the visual, associative memory that I came with, and when it doesn't always work, it's not a failure.

Accepting the limitations of my memory and working with or around it is much more empowering than trying to change the way my memory works through sheer willpower. Being able to tell people I have to accommodate my memory limitations is much more empowering than pretending I'm fine and missing deadlines and breaking promises. Learning even one tiny thing that works specifically (if sporadically) for me is much more empowering than studying yet another self-help guru's method and not getting anything out of it.
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Old 10-31-10, 08:59 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

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Originally Posted by KMiller View Post
Many people have "come out" with their ADHD only to be met with that age old chorus, "ADHD isn't real, it's just __insert dismissal here__." The biological model has overcome this problem as it demonstrates that ADHD is truly, incontrovertibly real. Some models threaten this belief, such as models that promote ADHD as an advantage, as it allows people to dismiss the impairments caused by ADHD as personal faults on the part of the individual with the disorder.
I could not agree more.
The diagnosis of ADHD made it perfectly clear to me that there was a proper explanation for my behaviour that did not involve bad moral character.
I would never ever assert that ADHD was an advantage- my many years with unrecognised, untreated ADHD were quite frankly hideous.
The problem was tipped from worsening chaos and distress to a course of rapid and unremitting improvement by the correct diagnosis and treatment. However- I like many aspects of my "ADDish" thinking patterns, and have kept them, despite doing well- so amke of that what you will.

Quote:
Some also believe that the neurobiological model automatically confers a curse of negative thinking and stereotype threat on the head of the individual with ADHD.
I would not say automatically. I would say though that it is a natural trap that many of us fall into.


Quote:
One might think that these people believe that by "thinking positively" they can make the negative symptoms disappear!
Some might think this- I most certainly do not.
To me positive thinking means this:
The assumption that self regulation and attention are trainable skills, and that with appropriate intervention in terms of an appropriately personalised combination of medication, pyschological therapy, and social assistance, that any sentient human can engage successfully with this training.

Quote:
Indeed there is a threat that individuals with ADHD might not be able to overcome the diagnosis. This is especially true of adults who are diagnosed later in life, as it is my experience that children are relatively indifferent to the idea that they have a disorder, at least until they hit the teenage years. For the most part, the nature of the disability is not made evident to them at such a young age, and perhaps it is that they are incapable of considering their plight that allows them to soldier on so resiliently. Some people would promote instead telling fables to these children to ensure that they never have the problem of being "disabled" by the facts surrounding their diagnosis.
However- what does one do when ones daughter becomes self conscious because she thinks there is something"wrong with her?'.

Quote:
Ochoa discusses the idea of empowering individuals through helping them overcome what he terms "emotional distress syndrome."
That sounds interesting.
Can you post a link?
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Old 10-31-10, 09:10 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

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Originally Posted by Barliman
However- what does one do when ones daughter becomes self conscious because she thinks there is something"wrong with her?'.
Certainly not lie to her about the real details of the disorder. Good patient education prevents this. This article being published in a Counseling magazine, I would say the author probably advocates getting one's daughter counseling in a case like this. I would tend to agree, as I think counseling is a necessary part of any psychiatric treatment for any psychiatric disorder.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Barliman View Post
That sounds interesting.
Can you post a link?
I can't link you directly because it was published in Counseling Today and the article was never uploaded in HTML format. Even if it were, it would be in the Members Only section of the website.

The American Counseling Association does however make these magazines available to members in PDF format. Here is a download link for the entire issue. I believe the ADD article is on page 54 or so.

The gist of it is in the text I extracted for the OP, but there is more information on it in the article, as well as some blather about EMDR for ADHD.
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Old 10-31-10, 09:32 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

I know that intersex women (CAIS) have been lied to about their own bodies, and that upon finding out as adults, it was really psychologically awful to find out that something was hidden from them for much of their lives, and it seems to me it would have been better to just tell them.

I have a particular health problem that required extra care be taken and I was not told about it until the last couple of years, which has had long-term consequences.

Generally speaking, it seems best to just let children know, be honest about it. Don't try to make up euphemisms or hide the facts because of fear of labeling children with a disorder. Trying to cope with something that makes no sense because you have no information is so much worse.
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Old 10-31-10, 10:09 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

Agree with Fortune...

It's similar to the case of telling a child that there are adopted (first analogy to come to mind)...

IT should be slowly brought up over the years, in an age-adequate way.

Denialism of reality is a path to hell.
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Old 11-03-10, 01:14 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

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All that's required to resolve the problems which ADDers face is a mechanistic understanding of the nonADD and ADD mind
Agreed, but my understanding is none of us have a tried and true mechanistic understanding of the mind yet. We can't take apart the brain, put it back together and have a working mind again. My understanding is fields like neurology and artificial intelligence are in their infancy. So how did you come by your mechanistic understanding of the mind?

"Not only do we not have a model for how our brains do complex tasks, we can't even imagine one." -- Dr Karl Deisseroth, neurologist and engineer.

Is it possible that what you have, SB UK, is a metaphorical understanding of the mind? That you're more poet than engineer?
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Old 11-03-10, 02:44 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

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Originally Posted by ninjapult View Post
Agreed, but my understanding is none of us have a tried and true mechanistic understanding of the mind yet. We can't take apart the brain, put it back together and have a working mind again. My understanding is fields like neurology and artificial intelligence are in their infancy. So how did you come by your mechanistic understanding of the mind?

"Not only do we not have a model for how our brains do complex tasks, we can't even imagine one." -- Dr Karl Deisseroth, neurologist and engineer.

Is it possible that what you have, SB UK, is a metaphorical understanding of the mind? That you're more poet than engineer?
The only way open to us, I guess.

To look for repetitive motifs in nature - and then to use these to infer knowledge about the mind.

Socrates 'crucified'
Jesus 'crucified'
David Bohm 'crucified'
Thomas Paine 'crucified'
Galileo 'crucified'

There are, likely, many many more
- and if we were to include the intellectual recluse in this list ... ... also ... ...

Why are nice, smart people crucified ?

What is it about their mind which so scares ?

Two types of mind ?

Graphite and Diamond ?

One 'all over the place' and the other crystal clear.

Shaking the powers of orthodoxy into protecting that which is not rightfully theirs.

Why does power corrupt ?

Why is wisdom not found amongst the powerful ?

Love this - the mirror neurone.

(Lots and Lots more patterns to be found out there - given half a mind and the eyes to look)

~*~

We can work out the mind (if we choose) by observing patterns in science - patterns in history - patterns in philosophy - patterns in religion.

Conflating external and internal reality and the observation of instantiations of the male:female archetype are a couple more of the larger patterns

- the male (hare,autism,cro-magnon man) : female (rabbit,schizophrenia,neanderthal man) pairing (respectively) as examples of a particularly edifying repetitive motif in evolution.

Duality.

The paradox of duality.

From particle:wave to right:left of bilateria to mind:body duality ... ... ....

All of the solutions we seek by simply cross-fertilizing disciplines -
by attempting to solve the intractable problems in one by identifying solutions from another or others
which
might
fit.

The evolution of the neutron star through black hole as a model for the evolution of the mind ?

From external (the neutron star) to internal (the black hole) reality.

Increasing informational entropy in both cases.

The spirit of a suffering God which craves for those pre- Universal creation maximized informational entropy -
when everyday's a lazy :-) Sunday.
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Old 11-03-10, 03:54 PM
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Re: Empowerment for ADHD within the neurobiological disorder model

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We can work out the mind (if we choose) by observing patterns in science - patterns in history - patterns in philosophy - patterns in religion.
Disagree. We can use the observations (patterns) to come up with hypothesis-es. We find something in the patterns to test. We test and repeat controlling for bias as much as we can. If we get the same results over and over then maybe we're on to something. Additional tests will have to be run. At some point it happens enough that we have a theory. Maybe we get to an actual fact at some point. It may be dis-proven one day. But we're only human and that's what we got.

Pattern analysis has to get out of your own head eventually. Out into the world you and I share.

http://blog.asmartbear.com/pattern-seeking-fallacy.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Availability_heuristic
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