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  #1  
Old 01-01-13, 05:04 AM
Peripheral Peripheral is offline
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Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

If the function of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involves breathing,

and the function of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involves emotional regulation.


1)Does breathing affect emotional regulation,

and emotional regulation affect breathing?
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Old 01-01-13, 05:11 AM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Emotion regulation via the autonomic nervous system in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Quote:
Abstract
Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) in children with ADHD (n=32) and typically developing controls (n=34), using a novel emotion task with four conditions: negative induction, negative suppression, positive induction, and positive suppression of affect. Both groups showed strong task-response effects in RSA. However, typically developing children showed systematic variation in parasympathetic activity (RSA) depending on both emotion valence (more activation for negative emotion, reduced activation for positive emotion) and task demand (more activation for suppression than induction). In contrast, children with ADHD displayed a stable pattern of elevated parasympathetic activity (RSA) across all task conditions compared to baseline. No group differences in sympathetic activity (PEP) were observed. It is concluded ADHD in childhood is associated with abnormal parasympathetic mechanisms involved in emotion regulation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21394506
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Old 01-01-13, 05:30 AM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Quote:
Airway resistance changes during the normal respiratory cycle.

During inspiration,

both lungs and airways expand in response to the decreased intrapleural pressure;

the widened airways offer less resistance.

During expiration,

the reverse occurs,

and resistance increases.

This explains why persons with constricted airways (e.g., asthma) have much more difficulty exhaling than inhaling.

The resistance can also be altered by contractions of bronchial smooth muscle,

which narrow the passages and increase resistance.

These muscles are under the control of autonomic nerves:

sympathetic stimulation (norepinephrine) dilates them,

and parasympathetic stimulation (acetylcholine) constricts them.



The Physiology Coloring Book, Kapit/Macey/Meisami: Mechanics of Breathing, P49.

Inspiration (breath in) = sympathetic (norepinephrine)

Expiration (breath out) = parasympathetic (acetycholine)
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Last edited by Peripheral; 01-01-13 at 05:47 AM..
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Old 01-01-13, 06:05 AM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Quote:
....typically developing children showed systematic variation in parasympathetic activity (RSA) depending on both emotion valence (more activation for negative emotion, reduced activation for positive emotion) and task demand (more activation for suppression than induction)...

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21394506
Non ADHD children


More activation of parasympathetic for negative emotion,

reduced activation of Parasympathetic for positive emotion.



More activation parasympathetic for suppression task demand,

less activation of parasympathetic for induction task demand.







.
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Old 01-01-13, 06:16 AM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Quote:
In contrast, children with ADHD displayed a stable pattern of elevated parasympathetic activity (RSA) across all task conditions compared to baseline. No group differences in sympathetic activity (PEP) were observed.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21394506

ADHD Children

Parasympathetic activity elevated across all task conditions.


(Sympathetic activity same in both ADHD and Non ADHD children)


Parasympathetic disfunction (?) in both asthma and ADHD?





.
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Last edited by Peripheral; 01-01-13 at 06:35 AM..
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Old 01-01-13, 01:48 PM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Peripheral View Post
If the function of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involves breathing,

and the function of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involves emotional regulation.


1)Does breathing affect emotional regulation,

and emotional regulation affect breathing?
Yes.

When I'm really Anxious, I know I don't breathe as deeply.

Breathing is one way I was taught to handle my Anxiety Disorder.

Another is self-talk, telling myself that I am strong.
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Old 01-01-13, 10:50 PM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Regulation?

Quote:
Non ADHD children


More activation of parasympathetic for negative emotion,

reduced activation of Parasympathetic for positive emotion.

Lack of Regulation?

Quote:
ADHD Children

More activation of parasympathetic for both,

negative emotion,

and positive emotion.


-What are the effects of having a over-active parasympathetic nervous system,

during positive emotions?


-Why would the parasympathetic nervous system be overactive?


-What types of breathing and/or other techniques activate parasympathetic nervous system?

and what types of breathing and/or other techniques de-activate the parasympathetic nervous system?


-What types of external-internal environments activate parasympathetic nervous system?

and what types of external-internal environments de-activate the parasympathetic nervous system?
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Last edited by Peripheral; 01-01-13 at 11:19 PM..
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