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  #1  
Old 01-01-13, 06:04 AM
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Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

If the function of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involves breathing,

and the function of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involves emotional regulation.


1)Does breathing affect emotional regulation,

and emotional regulation affect breathing?
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Old 01-01-13, 06:11 AM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Emotion regulation via the autonomic nervous system in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Quote:
Abstract
Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) in children with ADHD (n=32) and typically developing controls (n=34), using a novel emotion task with four conditions: negative induction, negative suppression, positive induction, and positive suppression of affect. Both groups showed strong task-response effects in RSA. However, typically developing children showed systematic variation in parasympathetic activity (RSA) depending on both emotion valence (more activation for negative emotion, reduced activation for positive emotion) and task demand (more activation for suppression than induction). In contrast, children with ADHD displayed a stable pattern of elevated parasympathetic activity (RSA) across all task conditions compared to baseline. No group differences in sympathetic activity (PEP) were observed. It is concluded ADHD in childhood is associated with abnormal parasympathetic mechanisms involved in emotion regulation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21394506
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Old 01-01-13, 06:30 AM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Quote:
Airway resistance changes during the normal respiratory cycle.

During inspiration,

both lungs and airways expand in response to the decreased intrapleural pressure;

the widened airways offer less resistance.

During expiration,

the reverse occurs,

and resistance increases.

This explains why persons with constricted airways (e.g., asthma) have much more difficulty exhaling than inhaling.

The resistance can also be altered by contractions of bronchial smooth muscle,

which narrow the passages and increase resistance.

These muscles are under the control of autonomic nerves:

sympathetic stimulation (norepinephrine) dilates them,

and parasympathetic stimulation (acetylcholine) constricts them.



The Physiology Coloring Book, Kapit/Macey/Meisami: Mechanics of Breathing, P49.

Inspiration (breath in) = sympathetic (norepinephrine)

Expiration (breath out) = parasympathetic (acetycholine)

Last edited by Peripheral; 01-01-13 at 06:47 AM..
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Old 01-01-13, 07:05 AM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Quote:
....typically developing children showed systematic variation in parasympathetic activity (RSA) depending on both emotion valence (more activation for negative emotion, reduced activation for positive emotion) and task demand (more activation for suppression than induction)...

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21394506
Non ADHD children


More activation of parasympathetic for negative emotion,

reduced activation of Parasympathetic for positive emotion.



More activation parasympathetic for suppression task demand,

less activation of parasympathetic for induction task demand.







.
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Old 01-01-13, 07:16 AM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Quote:
In contrast, children with ADHD displayed a stable pattern of elevated parasympathetic activity (RSA) across all task conditions compared to baseline. No group differences in sympathetic activity (PEP) were observed.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21394506

ADHD Children

Parasympathetic activity elevated across all task conditions.


(Sympathetic activity same in both ADHD and Non ADHD children)


Parasympathetic disfunction (?) in both asthma and ADHD?





.

Last edited by Peripheral; 01-01-13 at 07:35 AM..
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Old 01-01-13, 02:48 PM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Peripheral View Post
If the function of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involves breathing,

and the function of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involves emotional regulation.


1)Does breathing affect emotional regulation,

and emotional regulation affect breathing?
Yes.

When I'm really Anxious, I know I don't breathe as deeply.

Breathing is one way I was taught to handle my Anxiety Disorder.

Another is self-talk, telling myself that I am strong.
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Old 01-01-13, 11:50 PM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Regulation?

Quote:
Non ADHD children


More activation of parasympathetic for negative emotion,

reduced activation of Parasympathetic for positive emotion.

Lack of Regulation?

Quote:
ADHD Children

More activation of parasympathetic for both,

negative emotion,

and positive emotion.


-What are the effects of having a over-active parasympathetic nervous system,

during positive emotions?


-Why would the parasympathetic nervous system be overactive?


-What types of breathing and/or other techniques activate parasympathetic nervous system?

and what types of breathing and/or other techniques de-activate the parasympathetic nervous system?


-What types of external-internal environments activate parasympathetic nervous system?

and what types of external-internal environments de-activate the parasympathetic nervous system?

Last edited by Peripheral; 01-02-13 at 12:19 AM..
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Old 10-25-15, 09:27 PM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

What has not been clarified here is whether the dysfunction is in the myelinated PNS (social attunement and attachment) or in the unmyelinated vagus- "freeze response" and other trauma related events.

The increased PNS activation for negative emotion would suggest an overactive freeze response, and this would be strongly associated with cerebral underperfusion and foggy, inattentive states.
Furthermore children sitting on the edge of this state would be hyperactive and hypervigilant.
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Old 10-25-15, 09:36 PM
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Re: Autonomic Nervous System And ADHD?

Though it does not specifically mention ADHD this paper is highly significant:

Front Neurol. 2015 Sep 4;6:182. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00182. eCollection 2015.
Potential Interactions between the Autonomic Nervous System and Higher Level Functions in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Conditions.

The paper emphasises issues such as an association between cognitive impairment and autonomic dysfunction and stresses that executive functions are most impaired.

The paper is talking more about the autonomic dysfunction associated with hard neurological lesions, however close questioning will reveal the presence of these autonomic symptoms such as orthostatic intolerance (feeling faint when standing up) or gut dysfunction) in a large proportion of ADHD patients.
Here are a few key quotes:

Quote:
Orthostatic intolerance, change in sweating, gastrointestinal complaints, pupillary abnormalities, neurogenic bladder, and sexual dysfunctions or secreto-motor abnormalities are the most common features suggestive for AF




In this case, a bottom-up mechanism is responsible for cognitive dysfunctions.



A direct association between ANS efficiency, cognitive performance, and regional brain activity has been recently demonstrated in healthy individuals, using task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging





-- and we should all be clear by now that ADHD is a "bottom up" phenomenon.
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Sir William Osler

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