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Old 05-09-14, 03:12 AM
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The history of ADHD

The later phases of this history need more expansion- but the following gives a degree of background as to the evolution of the concept of ADHD.

Hippocrates described a condition that seems to be
compatible with what we now know as ADHD.


He described patients who had....
Quote:
"quickened responses to sensory experience, but also less tenaciousness because the soul moves on quickly to the next impression".
Quote:
Hippocrates attributed this condition to an "overbalance of fire over water".
His remedy for this "overbalance" was "barley rather than wheat bread, fish rather than meat, water drinks, and many natural and diverse physical activities"

From Hippocrates: Aphorisms.

translation:

The Genuine Works of Hippocrates, Adams F (ed) 1849

Melchior Adam Weikard
In 1775, Melchior Adam, a prominent German physician, published the textbook Der Philosophische Arzt Weikard's text contained a description of ADHD-like behaviours, Weikard described many of the symptoms now associated with the inattentive dimension of ADHD in the DSM For instance, according to the English translation provided by Barkley and Peters, Weikard stated that:


Quote:
Quote:
"An inattentive person wont remark anything but will be shallow everywhere. He studies his matters only superficially; his judgements are erroneous and he misconceives the worth of things because he does not spend enough time and patience to search a matter individually or by the piece with the adequate accuracy. Such people only hear half of everything; they memorize or inform only half of it or do it in a messy manner. According to a proverb they generally know a little bit of all and nothing of the whole....They are mostly reckless, often copious considering imprudent projects, but they are also most inconstant in execution. They treat everything in a light manner since they are not attentive enough to feel denigration or disadvantages."

According to Weikard, the treatment recommended was:
Quote:
Quote:
"The inattentive person is to be separated from the noise or any other objects; he is to be kept solitary, in the dark, when he is too active. The easily agile fibres are to be fixated by rubbing, cold baths, steel powder,cinchona , mineral waters, horseback riding, and gymnastic exercises."


Alexander Crichton (Scottish physician 1763-1856) was
was the second person to describe a condition similar to the inattentive subtype of (ADHD), in his book An inquiry into the nature and origin of mental derangement: comprehending a concise system of the physiology and pathology of the human mind and a history of the passions and their effects (1798)

Quote:
Quote:
"The incapacity of attending with a necessary degree of constancy to any one object, almost always arises from an unnatural or morbid sensibility of the nerves, by which means this faculty is incessantly withdrawn from one impression to another. It may be either born with a person, or it may be the effect of accidental diseases."When born with a person it becomes evident at a very early period of life, and has a very bad effect, inasmuch as it renders him incapable of attending with constancy to any one object of education. But it seldom is in so great a degree as totally to impede all instruction; and what is very fortunate, it is generally diminished with age." (p. 271)

Crichton further observed:
Quote:
Quote:
"In this disease of attention, if it can with propriety be called so, every impression seems to agitate the person, and gives him or her an unnatural degree of mental restlessness. People walking up and down the room, a slight noise in the same, the moving of a table, the shutting a door suddenly, a slight excess of heat or of cold, too much light, or too little light, all destroy constant attention in such patients, inasmuch as it is easily excited by every impression." (p. 272)

Crichton noted that

Quote:
Quote:
"they have a particular name for the state of their nerves, which is expressive enough of their feelings. They say they have the fidgets.'" (p. 272) .



Dr. Crichton suggested that these children needed special educational intervention and noted that it was obvious that they had a problem attending even how hard they did try.


Quote:
Quote:
"Every public teacher must have observed that there are many to whom the dryness and difficulties of the Latin and Greek grammars are so disgusting that neither the terrors of the rod, nor the indulgence of kind entreaty can cause them to give their attention to them." (p 278)



Both Melchior Adam Weikard and Alexander Crichton wrote about the occupationally disabling features of this disorder, including attentional problems, restlessness, early onset, and how it can affect schooling, without any of the moralism introduced by George Still and later authors.



Defective Moral Control
(1902)
Restlessness Syndrome
(1920s)
Post Encephalitic Behaviour Disorder
(1920s-1930s)
Brain-Injured Child
(1940s)
Minimal Brain Damage
(1950s)
Minimal Brain Dysfunction
(1960s1970s)
Hyperactive Child Syndrome or Hyperkinetic Reaction of Childhood
(1960s)
Attention Deficit Disorder With orWithout Hyperactivity
(1980)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder &
Undifferentiated Attention Deficit Disorder
(1987)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Three Subtypes:
Predominantly Inattentive
Predominantly Hyperactive Impulsive
Combined Types
(1999)





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Old 05-09-14, 05:59 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Now for comment 1:
To all the ADHD skeptics out there note that the fantasy that ADHD is a fiction cooked up by a gang of stooges of the pharmaceutical industry is untenable in the light of the accounts from Hippocrates and from Crichton and from Weikard.
These three accounts predate any formalised pharmaceutical lobby.

The "Defective Moral Control", Restlessness Syndrome, and Post Encephalitic Syndrome also predate any possible influence of the drug cartel as none of these 3 syndromes had any proposed pharmaceutical solution attached to them-- and in any case Pharma did not have the stranglehold on conventional health care that it then had.
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I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing, postulates consciousness.

both by:
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Old 05-09-14, 08:11 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Re Alexander Crichton:
read from p254

"On Attention, and its diseases"

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=...page&q&f=false

Pure gold

ADHD denialism ---pig's a*#e.
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Old 05-09-14, 09:59 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD

The problem with an interconnected reality is that it's impossible to solve a problem without taking into account all information.
A mind like that (Systems) will never function in standard (Molecular) context - because it'll see the artificial nature of regarding anything without respect to all other things.
It's impossible for a computer to integrate at that level - but very easy for us - as we engage cognitive dissonance to identify any logical inconsistencies within our own behaviour.

So - it might be more humane to kill prisoners of war quickly (Molecular Morality)
- but what's more moral is the elimination of war, prisoners (Systems Morality).

The Molecular Moral are immoral to Systems Morality.

Noting, once again, that none of Systems perspective is slowly and meticulously pored over - it's just the modus operandi of particularly our types of mind.
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Old 05-09-14, 10:05 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD



I think there may be some upsides to treatment with medication, though.
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Old 05-09-14, 10:27 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Quote:
"overbalance of fire over water".
over-stimulation over over-narcosis

Over-stimulation.

If we equate stimulation to stress ie the extreme sports people who use extreme stress as stimulation.

Then that's over distress - which will lead to cortisol and SNS resistance syndromes.

--- Solution ---
Eliminate distressful stimulation to allow set-point to be re-set and remain in that place.

From the perspective of education/work - the major take-home would be don't bore people to tears by using the primitive reward system (the prospect of money,power) to over-ride morality.
Yeah - become a doctor, dentist, vet and you'll make loadsa' money and nobody'll catch you if you profiteer - make a mistake as any extra charges made can be put down to clinical discretion.

My point being that we need to eliminate the entire field of healthcare (little will remain) - and introduce a way of living which doesn't result in such high levels of disease to human beings and pets.

Low sugar/starch for pets too ???
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Old 05-09-14, 10:34 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Awesome thread. Thanks.

tc

Robert

PS

At the risk of displaying my own science "geekdom," I recently re-read

Crichton for the 3rd time
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Old 05-09-14, 10:34 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Reasons for admission,

Some of these were great. A few of my favorites so far

Laziness, Marriage of son, Imaginary female trouble, Novel reading, Over study of religion, Bad habits and political excitement, Uterine derangement, Gathering in the head, Hard study, Tobacco and masturbation and Salvation Army. So many to choose from.

Too bad they didn't have a DSM from that time, it would have been a hoot.

Thanks for posting it.
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Old 05-09-14, 10:59 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD

According to this list 99% of the population would be committed.
Very funny
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Old 05-09-14, 11:05 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Benefits to medication ?

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/think...a-way-out.html

Quote:
Originally Posted by today's newspaper
As a child of the 70s, I had undiagnosed dyslexia and ADHD (this was later confirmed by a psychiatrist when I was in my thirties).
I self-medicated with heroin for many years.
Prevents self-medication.

But there's a better way.

We either give rats in tower blocks morphine or we re-house them in the country ?

Giving rats morphine will probably prevent all manner of other unpleasant drug-seeking behaviour - but it isn't (by a long way) the ideal solution.
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Old 05-09-14, 11:33 AM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by mctavish23 View Post
Awesome thread. Thanks.

tc

Robert

PS

At the risk of displaying my own science "geekdom," I recently re-read

Crichton for the 3rd time
Get your geek on babe!
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Old 05-09-14, 02:29 PM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by SB_UK View Post

My point being that we need to eliminate the entire field of healthcare (little will remain)

Yep. Eliminate it so we can go back to the good old days as depicted in that image.
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Old 05-09-14, 02:35 PM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Fortunately, the more we study something, the better informed we become about it. If things progress in their current direction, ADHD will have yet a different name - or none at all - as the understanding allows us to more effectively tease out and address individual symptoms. And their locations. No more medications that attach to every single synapse in the brain but only the synapses in a single area that are having a problem. Neuroprosthetics that work like pacemakers and don't have the side effects of medications. They're actually experimenting with these things now, but they're a long way off from human clinical trials. Oh, well. Future generations.
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Old 05-09-14, 02:40 PM
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Re: The history of ADHD



Kicked in head by horse.

I can't stop laughing at this
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Old 05-09-14, 03:00 PM
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Re: The history of ADHD

Asthma? Bad whiskey? I live on bad whiskey
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